The IMS Infrasound Network: Design and Establishment of Infrasound Stations

Chapter

Abstract

The signing of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on 24 September 1996 and the establishment of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for Treaty verification has led to a rapid development in the use of infrasound monitoring technology for the detection of nuclear explosions. The IMS includes a 60-station infrasound monitoring network that is designed to reliably detect infrasonic signals from a 1-kiloton atmospheric nuclear explosion at two or more network stations. The stations in this network are located uniformly over the face of the globe. Each station consists of an array of high-sensitivity microbarometer sensors arranged in an optimal configuration for the detection of signals from atmospheric explosions. The construction of this global infrasound monitoring system is nearing completion. In this chapter, we focus on the fundamental design principles for IMS infrasonic array stations with an emphasis on the recent developments in array design, improvements in infrasound sensor technology, and advances in background noise reduction that can potentially improve the monitoring capability and reliability of the global network.

Keywords

Infrasonic array design Signal correlation IMS infrasound station specifications Wind-noise reduction Infrasound sensors 

References

  1. Alcoverro B (1998) Acoustic filters design and experimental results. Proceedings workshop on infrasound. DASE, Commissariat à l’Énergie, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France, 21–24 July 1998Google Scholar
  2. Alcoverro B (2002) Frequency response of noise reducers. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 28–31 October, 2002Google Scholar
  3. Alcoverro B (2008) The design and performance of infrasound noise-reducing pipe arrays. Handbook of signal processing in acoustics, chap. 80, Springer, New York, pp 1473–1486Google Scholar
  4. Alcoverro B, Le Pichon A (2005) Design and optimization of a noise reduction system for infrasonic measurements using elements with low acoustic impedance. J Acoust Soc Am 117:1717–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alcoverro B, Martysevich P, Starovoit Y (2005) Mechanical sensitivity of microbarometers MB2000 (DASE, France) and Chaparral 5 (USA) to vertical and horizontal ground motion. Inframatics 9:1–10Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong WT (1998) Comparison of infrasound correlation over differing array baselines. Proceedings of the 20th annual seismic research symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 21–23 September 1998, pp 543–554Google Scholar
  7. Bass HE, Shields FD (2004) The use of arrays of electronic sensors to separate infrasound from wind noise. Proceedings of the 26th seismic research review, Orlando, Florida, 21–23 September 2004, pp 601–607Google Scholar
  8. Bedard Jr, AJ, Bartram BW, Keane AN, Welsh DC, Nishiyama RT (2004) The infrasound network (ISNET): background, design details, and display capability as an 88D adjunct tornado detection tool. Proceedings of the 22nd conference on severe local storms, Hyannis, MA, American Meteorological Society, Paper 1.1Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya J, Bass HA, Drob DP, Whitaker RW, ReVelle DO, Sandoval TD (2003) Description and analysis of infrasound and seismic signals recorded from the Watusi explosive experiment, September 2002. Proceedings of the 25th seismic research review, Tucson, Arizona, 23–25 September 2003, pp 587–596Google Scholar
  10. Blanc E, Plantet JL (1998) Detection capability of the IMS infrasound network: a more realistic approach. Proceedings workshop on infrasound, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France, 21–24 July 1998Google Scholar
  11. Blandford RR (1997) Design of infrasonic arrays. Air Force Technical Applications Center Report, AFTAC-TR-97-013Google Scholar
  12. Blandford RR (2000) Need for a small subarray at IMS infrasound stations – implications of shuttle and S. Pacific nuclear signals. Proceedings infrasound workshop, Passau, Germany, 2–6 October 2000Google Scholar
  13. Blandford RR (2004) Optimal infrasound array design for 1 kt atmospheric explosions. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Hobart, Australia, 29 November–2 December 2004Google Scholar
  14. Bowman JR, Baker GE, Bahavar M (2005) Ambient infrasound noise. Geophys Res Lett 32:L09803. doi:10.1029/2005GL022486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowman JR, Shields G, O’Brien MS (2007) Infrasound station ambient noise estimates and models: 2003–2006. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  16. Brachet N, Brown D, Le Bras R, Mialle P, Coyne J (2010) Monitoring the earth’s atmosphere with the global IMS infrasound network. This volume, pp. 73–114Google Scholar
  17. Brown D, Collins C, Kennett B (2003) The Woomera infrasound and seismic experiment. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, La Jolla, California, 27–30 October 2003Google Scholar
  18. Campus P, Hoffmann T (2006) The IMS infrasound network: the challenge continues. Inframatics 13:26–28Google Scholar
  19. Campus P, Demirovic E, Forbes A, Kramer A, Martysevich P, Stefanova S (2007). The IMS infrasound network: current status and future prospectives. Proceedings of the 2007 infrasound workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  20. Cansi Y (1995) An automatic seismic event processing for detection and location: the PMCC method. Geophys Res Lett 22:1021–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cansi Y, Le Pichon A (2008) Infrasound event detection using the progressive multi-channel correlation algorithm. Handbook of signal processing in acoustics, chap. 77. Springer, New York, pp 1425-1435Google Scholar
  22. Capon J (1969) High resolution frequency wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proc IEEE 57:1408–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christie DR (1989) Long nonlinear waves in the lower atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 46:1462–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christie DR (1999) Wind-noise-reducing pipe arrays. Report IMS-IM-1999-1, International Monitoring System Division, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna, Austria, 22ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Christie DR (2002) Wind-noise-reducing pipe arrays for IMS infrasound stations in Antarctica. Report IMS-IM-2002-1, International Monitoring System Division, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna, Austria, 10ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Christie DR (2006) Wind noise reduction at infrasound monitoring stations. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  27. Christie DR (2007a) Recent developments in infrasound monitoring technology: application to CTBT verification. CTBTO Spectrum, Issue 10, August 2007 pp 18–19, 24 (available online at http://www.ctbto.org)
  28. Christie DR (2007b) Optimum array design for the detection of distant atmospheric explosions: influence of the spatial correlation of infrasonic signals. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  29. Christie DR (2007c) Recent progress in wind noise reduction at infrasound monitoring stations. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  30. Christie DR (2008) Wind-noise-reduction at IMS infrasound stations. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Bermuda, 3–7 November 2008Google Scholar
  31. Christie DR, Kennett BLN (2007) Detection of nuclear explosions using infrasound techniques. Final Report AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2007-1151, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, Available from United States Technical Information ServiceGoogle Scholar
  32. Christie DR, Vivas Veloso JA, Campus P, Bell M, Hoffmann T, Langlois A, Martysevich P, Demirovic E, Carvalho J (2001) Detection of atmospheric nuclear explosions: the infrasound component of the International Monitoring System. Kerntechnik 66:98–101Google Scholar
  33. Christie DR, Kennett BLN, Tarlowski C (2005a) Detection of distant atmospheric explosions: Implications for the design of IMS infrasound array stations. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Papeete, Tahiti, 28 November –2 December 2005Google Scholar
  34. Christie DR, Kennett BLN, Tarlowski C (2005b) Detection of regional and distant atmospheric explosions. Proceedings of the 27th seismic research review, Rancho Mirage, California, 20–22 September 2005, pp 817–827Google Scholar
  35. Christie DR, Kennett BLN, Tarlowski C (2006) Detection of atmospheric explosions at IMS monitoring stations using infrasound techniques. Proceedings of the 28th seismic research review, Orlando, Florida, 19–21 September 2006, pp 882–892Google Scholar
  36. Christie DR, Kennett BLN, Tarlowski C (2007) Advances in infrasound technology with application to nuclear explosion monitoring. Proceedings of the 29th monitoring research review, Denver, Colorado, 25–27 September 2007, pp 825–835Google Scholar
  37. Clauter DA, Blandford RR (1997) Capability modeling of the proposed International Monitoring System 60-station infrasonic network. Proceedings infrasound workshop for CTBT monitoring, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 25–28 August 1997, p 225Google Scholar
  38. Cook RK (1962) Strange sounds in the atmosphere. Part I. Sound 1:12–16Google Scholar
  39. Cook RK, Bedard AJ Jr (1971) On the measurement of infrasound. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:5–11Google Scholar
  40. Cordero F, Matheson H, Johnson DP (1957) A nonlinear instrument diaphragm. J Res Nat Bur Stand 58:333–337Google Scholar
  41. de Groot-Hedlin CD, Hedlin MAH, Drob DP (2010) Atmospheric variability and infrasound monitoring. This volume, pp. 469–504Google Scholar
  42. Daniels FB (1959) Noise-reducing line microphone for frequencies below 1 cps. J Acoust Soc Am 31:529–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Evers LG, Haak HW (2010) The Characteristics of Infrasound, its propagation and some early history. This volume, pp. 3–26Google Scholar
  44. Garcés M, McNamara S, Drob D, Brachet N (2006) A ray-based automatic infrasonic source location algorithm. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  45. Gossard EE (1969) The effect of bandwidth on the interpretation of the cross-spectra of wave recordings from spatially separated sites. J Geophys Res 74:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gossard EE, Hooke WH (1975) Waves in the atmosphere: atmospheric infrasound and gravity waves, chap. 9, sect. 65. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Gossard EE, Sailors DB (1970) Dispersion bandwidth deduced from coherency of wave recordings from spatially separated sites. J Geophys Res 75:1324–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Green DN (2008) Assessing the detection capability of the International Monitoring System infrasound network. AWE Report 629/08, AWE Aldermaston, 91ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Grover FH (1971) Experimental noise reducers for an active microbarograph array. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:41–52Google Scholar
  50. Haubrich RA (1968) Array design. Bull Seis Soc Am 58:977–991Google Scholar
  51. Hedlin MAH (2001) Recent experiments in infrasonic noise reduction: the search for that elusive, broadband, filter. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  52. Hedlin MAH, Alcoverro B (2005) The use of impedance matching capillaries for reducing resonance in rosette infrasonic spatial filters. J Acoust Soc Amer 117:1880–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hedlin MAH, Berger J (2001) Evaluation of infrasonic noise reduction filters. Proceedings of the 23rd seismic research review, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 2–5 October 2001, pp 121–130Google Scholar
  54. Hedlin MAH, Raspet R (2003) Infrasonic wind-noise reduction by barriers and spatial filters. J Acoust Soc Am 114:1379–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hedlin MAH, Alcoverro B, D’Spain G (2003) Evaluation of rosette infrasonic noise reducing spatial filters. J Acoust Soc Am 114:1807–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hedlin M, Arrowsmith S, Berger J, Walker K, Zumberge M (2004) Experiments in infrasound at the Piñon Flat observatory in California. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Hobart, Australia, 29 November–2 December 2004Google Scholar
  57. Herrin E, Golden P, Hedlin MAH (2001a) Investigation of wind noise reducing filters. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  58. Herrin E, Sorrells GG, Negaru P, Swanson JG, Golden P, Mulcahy C (2001b) Comparative evaluation of selected infrasound noise reduction methods. Proceedings of the 23rd seismic research review, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 2–5 October 2001, pp 131-139Google Scholar
  59. Kennett BLN, Brown DJ, Sambridge M, Tarlowski C (2003) Signal parameter estimation for sparse arrays. Bull Seism Soc Am 93:1765–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Le Pichon A, Vergoz J, Green D, Brachet N, Cerranna L, Evers L (2008) Ground-truth events as benchmark for assessing the infrasound detection capability. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Bermuda, 3–7 November 2008Google Scholar
  61. Le Pichon A, Vergoz J, Blanc E, Guilbert J, Ceranna L, Evers L, Brachet N (2009) Assessing the performance of the International Monitoring System infrasound network: geographical coverage and temporal variabilities. J Geophys Res 114, D08112, doi:10.1029/2008JD010907Google Scholar
  62. Liszka L (2008a) Infrasound: a summary of 35 years of research. IRF Scientific Report 291, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umeå, Sweden, 150ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Mack H, Flinn EA (1971) Analysis of the spatial coherence of short-period acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:255–269Google Scholar
  64. McCormack D (2002) Towards characterization of infrasound signals. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 28–31 October 2002Google Scholar
  65. Mutschlecner JP (1998) Variation and uncertainty in infrasonic signals. Proceedings of the 20th seismic research symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 21–23 September 1998, pp 605–611Google Scholar
  66. Mutschlecner JP, Whitaker RW (1990) The correction of infrasound signals for upper atmospheric winds. Forth international symposium on long range sound propagation, NASA Conference Publication 3101Google Scholar
  67. Mutschlecner JP, Whitaker RW, Auer LH (1999) An empirical study of infrasonic propagation. Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report LA-13620-MSGoogle Scholar
  68. Mutschlecner JP, Whitaker RW (2010) Some atmospheric effects on infrasound signal amplitudes. This volume, pp. 449–468Google Scholar
  69. National Academy of Sciences (2002) Technical issues related to the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. National Academy of Sciences Report, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, ISBN 0-309-08506-3Google Scholar
  70. Noel SD, Whitaker RW (1991) Comparison of noise reduction systems. Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report LA-12003-MSGoogle Scholar
  71. Norris D, Gibson R (2004) Validation studies using a TDPE propagation model and near real-time atmospheric specifications. Proceedings Infrasound Technology Workshop, Hobart, Australia, 29 November –2 December 2004Google Scholar
  72. Ponceau D, Bosca L (2010) Specifications of low-noise broadband microbarometers. This volume, pp. 115–136Google Scholar
  73. Rost S, Thomas C (2002) Array seismology: methods and applications. Rev Geophys 40, doi:10.1029/2000RG000100Google Scholar
  74. Shields FD (2005) Low-frequency wind noise correlation in microphone arrays. J Acoust Soc Am 117:3489–3496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Talmadge CL, Shields D, Gilbert KE (2001) Characterization and suppression of wind noise using a large-scale infrasound sensor array. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  76. Walker K, Zumberge M, Berger J, Hedlin M, Matoza R, Durdevic P, Walsh P (2005) Progress in optical fiber infrasound sensor research. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Papeete, Tahiti, 28 November – December 2005Google Scholar
  77. Walker K, Zumberge M, Berger J, Hedlin M (2006) Determining infrasound phase velocity direction with a three-arm OFIS. Proceedings of the 28th seismic research review, Orlando, Florida, 19–21 September 2006, pp 882–892Google Scholar
  78. Walker KT, Zumberge M, Hedlin M, Berger J, Shearer P (2007) Resolving infrasound signals with arrays of optical fiber infrasound sensors (OFIS): low wind noise, superb back azimuth (and elevation angle) resolution, and a compact design. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  79. Walker KT, Zumberge MA, Hedlin MAH, Shearer PM (2008) Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors. J Acoust Soc Am 124:2090–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Walker KT, Hedlin MAH (2010) A review of wind-noise reduction methodologies. This volume, pp. 137–180Google Scholar
  81. Whitaker RW, Mutschlecner JP (2006) Revisiting yield, direction, and signal type. Proceedings of the 28th seismic research review, Orlando, Florida, 19–21 September 2006, 957–963Google Scholar
  82. Whitaker RW, Mutschlecner JP (2008) A comparison of infrasound signals refracted from stratospheric and thermospheric altitudes. J Geophys Res 113, doi:10.1029/2007JD008852Google Scholar
  83. Whitaker RW, Sandoval TD, Mutschlecner JP (2003) Recent infrasound analysis. Proceedings of the 25th seismic research review, Tucson, Arizona, 23–25 September 2003, pp 646–653Google Scholar
  84. Wilson CR, Osborne D, Lawson K, Wilson I (2001) Installation of IS55 array at Windless Bight, Antarctica. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  85. Woodward R, Israelsson H, Bondár I, McLaughlin K, Bowman JR, Bass H (2005) Understanding wind-generated infrasound noise. Proceedings of the 27th seismic research review, Rancho Mirage, California, 20–22 September 2005, pp 866–875Google Scholar
  86. Zumberge MA, Berger J, Hedlin MH, Husmann E, Nooner S, Hilt R, Widmer-Schnidrig R (2003) An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz. J Acoust Soc Am 113:2474–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research School of Earth Sciences , The Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations