Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environment and Energy. Given the large number of applications being designed that utilize nanomaterials and nanotechnologies, and the perception that nanotechnology can (or will) provide the ultimate solution for the world's problems; questions arise regarding who benefits from these technological advances. Additionally, within the popular press all nanotechnology products are generally portrayed as being beneficial to society without necessarily distinguishing between real and potential benefits of the technology. Lastly, the benefits and implications of these technological advancements in society are explored.1
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