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Photosynthesis in Global-Scale Models

  • Andrew D. Friend
  • Richard J. Geider
  • Michael J. Behrenfeld
  • Christopher J. Still
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 29)

Photosynthesis models are now routinely used in many types of global investigations. Much of this work is driven by global environmental change concerns, with global models seen as key tools with which to synthesize current understanding, explain paleoclimatic variability in global biogeochemistry and ecology, and forecast ecosystem responses to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We discuss the approaches used to model terrestrial and marine photosynthesis at the global scale. Models in both realms fall into two equivalent categories, one empirical and one mechanistic. Within each category there are many similarities between terrestrial and marine models. Most empirical approaches estimate the distribution of photosynthetic capacity (chlorophyll in the oceans, LAI on land) from space and apply a photosynthetic light-use efficiency approach to obtain an estimate of carbon uptake. Mechanistic approaches attempt to simulate the distribution of capacity itself, as well as the rate of photosynthesis, and are thus capable of projecting terrestrial and marine carbon fluxes into the future and distant past.

A completely new state-of the-art global combined simulation of terrestrial and marine production is presented. Terrestrial photosynthesis is calculated using a mechanistic approach that treats the within-leaf light gradient, among other improvements over previous methods. Marine production utilizes a new approach that treats spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton chlorophyll to C ratio. Mean contemporary annual net primary productivity is estimated to be 107.3 Pg C year−1, with 51.1% coming from land and 48.9% from the oceans.

Improvements in prognostic modeling of global photosynthesis will come about through attention to the same issues in both terrestrial and marine environments. These primarily concern high quality validation data at scales appropriate to test global models and the development of methodologies to deal with the variety of physiological and phenological types. In addition, attention needs to be given to both the potential importance of phenotypic plasticity and better mechanistic approaches for the prediction of photosynthetic capacity distribution in space and time. Dialogue between modelers, experimental physiologists, and ecologists needs to improve. Without this there is a very real danger that global models will assume a shared acceptance of an in silico reality that bears only superficial resemblance to that in vivo.

Keywords

Gross Primary Production Mixed Layer Depth Global Change Biol Dynamic Global Vegetation Model Ocean Carbon Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew D. Friend
    • 1
  • Richard J. Geider
    • 2
  • Michael J. Behrenfeld
    • 3
  • Christopher J. Still
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CambridgeUK
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of EssexColchesterUK
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Plant PathologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System ScienceUniversity of California Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

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