Egg Parasitoids in Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management

  • Nick Mills
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 9)


As classical biological control agents, egg parasitoids exhibit a greater rate of establishment than other parasitoid guilds, but have not been as effective in suppressing the abundance of the target pest. Mymarid introductions have provided the most spectacular results, particular in the control of invasive cicadellids and curculionids, whereas Trichogramma introductions have very seldom been effective. The success of augmentative biological control with egg parasitoids has been mixed, which highlights the need to know enough about their ecology and behavior to be able to select effective indigenous species, to mass produce them as a quality product at a competitive price, and to formulate and apply them effectively. Programs that combine egg parasitoid augmentation with behavior-modifying infochemicals or compatible insecticides are likely to facilitate successful adoption by end users.


Classical Biological Control Augmentative Biological Control Augmentative Release Trichogramma Species Sugarcane Borer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahmad N, Wagan MS, Fatima B, Khan GC (2005) Significance and cost benefit of using pheromones in conjunction with parasitoids for the management of cotton bollworms. Pak J Zool 37:43–47Google Scholar
  2. Alma A, Arno C, Vidano C (1987) Particularities on Polynema striaticorne as egg parasite of Stictocephala bisonia (Rhynchota Auchenorrhyncha). In: Proceedings of the 6th Auchenorrhyncha Meeting, Turin, Italy, 7–11 Sept. 1987, National Research Council, Rome, pp 597–603Google Scholar
  3. Altieri MA, Lewis WJ, Nordlund DA, Gueldner RC, Todd JW (1981) Chemical interactions between plants and Trichogramma wasps in Georgia, USA soybean fields. Prot Ecol 3:259–264Google Scholar
  4. Andow DA, Klacan GC, Bach D, Leahy TC (1995) Limitations of Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) as an inundative biological control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). Environ Entomol 24:1352–1357Google Scholar
  5. Ballal CR, Lylla KR, Joshi S, Lakshmi L (2006) Appropriate packaging for transportation of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) egg cards. J Biol Control 20:219–223Google Scholar
  6. Bastos CS, de Almeida RP, Suinaga FA (2006) Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts. Pest Manage Sci 62:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beardsley JW (2000) The introduction and establishment of Anaphes (Patasson) calendrae (Gahan) in Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Proc the Hawaiian Entomol Soc 34:209–211Google Scholar
  8. Bloem S, Bloem KA, Knight AL (1998) Oviposition by sterile codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and control of wild populations with combined releases of sterile moths and egg parasitoids. J Entomol Soc B C 95:99–110Google Scholar
  9. Bourchier RS, Smith SM (1996) Influence of environmental conditions and parasitoid quality on field performance of Trichogramma minutum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 80:461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunner JF, Dunley JE, Doerr MD, Beers E (2001) Effect of pesticides on Colpoclypeus florus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of leafrollers in Washington. J Econ Entomol 94:1075–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caltagirone LE (1981) Landmark examples in classical biological control. Ann Rev Entomol 26:213–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carvalho GA, Reis PR, Rocha LCD, Moraes JC, Fuini LC, Ecole CC (2003) Side-effects of insecticides used in tomato fields on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Acta Scientiarum Agron 25:275–279Google Scholar
  13. Castillo J, Jacas JA, Pena JE, Ulmer BJ, Hall DG (2006) Effect of temperature on life history of Quadrastichus haitiensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an endoparasitoid of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biol Control 36:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng WY, Wang ZT, Chen SM (1995) Biological control of Asian corn borer in sweet corn fields. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute No. 148, 11–29Google Scholar
  15. Clarke AR (1990) The control of Nezara viridula L. with introduced egg parasitoids in Australia. A review of a ‘landmark’ example of classical biological control. Aust J Agric Res 41:1127–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clausen CP (1977) Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Handbook No. 480Google Scholar
  17. Cochereau UP (1972) Biological control in the Pacific. Cahiers O.R.S.T.O.M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Serie Biologie 16:89–104Google Scholar
  18. Cock MJW (1985) A Review of Biological Control of Pests in the Commonwealth Carribean and Bermuda up to 1982. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. Colazza S, Bin F (1992) Introduction of the oophage Edovum puttleri Griss. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Italy for the biological control of Colorado potato beetle. Redia 75:203–225Google Scholar
  20. Cônsoli FL, Botelho PSM, Parra JRP (2001) Selectivity of insecticides to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). J Appl Entomol 125:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cônsoli FL, Parra JRP, Hassan SA (1998) Side-effects of insecticides used in tomato fields on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym., Trichogrammatidae), a natural enemy of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep., Gelechiidae). J Appl Entomol 122:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Corrêa-Ferreira BS, Moscardi F (1996) Biological control of soybean stink bugs by inoculative releases of Trissolcus basalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 79:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corrêa-Ferreira BS, Domit LA, Morales L, Guimarães RC (2000) Integrated soybean pest management in micro river basins in Brazil. Integr Pest Manage Rev 5:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans GA, Peña JE (2005) A new Fidiobia species (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) reared from eggs of Diaprepes doublierii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Dominica. Fla Entomol 88:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flanders SE (1930) Mass production of egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma. Hilgardia 4:465–501Google Scholar
  26. Funasaki GY, Lai PY, Nakahara LM, Beardsley JW, Ota AK (1988) A review of biological control introductions in Hawaii, USA 1890 to 1985. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 28:105–160Google Scholar
  27. Gardner J, Hoffmann MP, Cheever SA, Seaman AJ, Westgate P, Hazzard RV (2007) Large-scale releases of Trichogramma ostriniae to suppress Ostrinia nubilalis in commercially grown processing and fresh market sweet corn. J Appl Entomol 131:432–440Google Scholar
  28. Giolo FP, Gruetzmacher AD, Manzoni CG, De Lima CAB, Noernberg SD (2007) Toxicity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults Trichogramma pretiosum. Bragantia 66:423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glenn DC, Hoffmann AA (1997) Developing a commercially viable system for biological control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in grapes using endemic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). J Econ Entomol 90:370–382Google Scholar
  30. Grandgirard J, Hoddle MS, Petit JN, Roderick GK, Davies N (2008) Engineering an invasion: classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, by the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi in Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. Biol Invasions 10:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Greathead DJ, Greathead AH (1992) Biological control of insect pests by parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information 13:61 N-68 NGoogle Scholar
  32. Greathead DJ (1971) A Review of Biological Control in the Ethiopian Region. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. Greathead DJ (1976) A Review of Biological Control in Western and Southern Europe. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. Greathead DJ (1992) Natural enemies of tropical locusts and grasshoppers: their impact and potential as biological control agents. In: Lomer CJ, Prior C (eds) Biological Control of Locusts and Grasshoppers. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 105–121Google Scholar
  35. Hall D, Peña J, Franqui R, Nguyen R, Stansly P, McCoy C, Lapointe S, Adair R, Bullock B (2001) Status of biological control by egg parasitoids of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in citrus in Florida and Puerto Rico. BioControl 46:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilton GC, Lashomb J (1996) Comparison of conventional and biological control intensive pest management programs on eggplant in New Jersey. Fla Entomol 79:488-496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanks LM, Millar JG, Paine TD, Campbell CD (2000) Classical biological control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Environ Entomol 29:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hare JD (1990) Ecology and management of the Colorado potato beetle. Annu Rev Entomol 35:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hassan SA, Zhang WQ (2001) Variability in quality of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from commercial suppliers in Germany. Biol Control 22:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hassan SA (1993) The mass rearing and utilization of Trichogramma to control lepidopterous pests: Achievements and outlook. Pestic Sci 37:387–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hegazi E, Herz A, Hassan SA, Khafagi WE, Agamy E, Zaitun A, El-Aziz GA, Showeil S, El-Said S, Khamis N (2007) Field efficiency of indigenous egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) to control the olive moth (Prays oleae, Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) and the jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in an olive plantation in Egypt. Biol Control 43:171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heimpel GE, Mills NJ (2011) Biological Control: Ecology and Application. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Herz A, Hassan SA (2006) Are indigenous strains of Trichogramma sp (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) better candidates for biological control of lepidopterous pests of the olive tree? Biocontrol Sci Technol 16:841–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoffman MP, Wright MG, Pitcher SA, Gradner J (2002) Inoculative releases of Trichogramma ostriniae for suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) in sweet corn: Field biology and population dynamics. Biol Control 25:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hommay G, Gertz C, Kienlen JC, Pizzol J, Chavigny P (2002) Comparison between the control efficacy of Trichogramma evanescens westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and two Trichogramma cacoeciae marchal strains against grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.), depending on their release density. Biocontrol Sci Technol 12:569–581Google Scholar
  46. Jacas JA, Peña JE, Duncan RE, Ulmer BJ (2008) Thermal requirements of Fidiobia dominica (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Haekeliana sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), two exotic egg parasitoids of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). BioControl 53:451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jacobson RJ, Chambers RJ, van Lenetern JC (1996) Control of glasshouse leafhopper (Hauptidia maroccana: Homoptyera, Cicadellidae) within an IPM programme in protected tomatoes. Bulletin OILB-SROP 19:67–70Google Scholar
  48. Jalali SK, Singh SP (2006) Biological control of Chilo partellus using egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Indian J Agric Res 40:184–189Google Scholar
  49. Jalali SK, Singh SP, Venkatesan T, Murthy KS, Lalitha T (2006) Development of endosulfan tolerant strain of an egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Indian J Exp Biol 44:584–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jalali SK, Venkatesan T, Murthy KS, Biswas SR, Lalitha Y (2005) Influence of temperature and host density on functional response of Telenomus remus Nixon, an egg parasitoid of Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Entomon 30:193–199Google Scholar
  51. Johnson MT, Follett PA, Taylor AD, Jones VP (2005) Impacts of biological control and invasive species on a non-target native Hawaiian insect. Oecologia 142:529–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones VP (1995) Reassessment of the role of predators and Trissolcus basalis in biological control of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii. Biol Control 5:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones WA, Jackson CG (1990) Mass production of Anaphes iole for augmentation against Lygus hesperus: effects of food on fecundity and longevity. Southwest Entomol 15:463–468Google Scholar
  54. Knight KMM, Gurr GM (2007) Review of Nezara viridula (L.) management strategies and potential for IPM in field crops with emphasis on Australia. Crop Prot 26:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lai PY, Funasaki GY (1986) List of beneficial organisms purposely introduced for biological control in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985. Plant Pest Control Branch, Plant Industry Div., Hawaii Department of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  56. Lampert EP, Haynes DL (1985) Population dynamics of the cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) at low population densities. Environ Entomol 14:74–79Google Scholar
  57. Lashomb J, Ng YS, Jansson RK, Bullock R (1987) Edovum puttleri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) an egg parasitoid of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): development and parasitism on eggplant. J Econ Entomol 80:65–68Google Scholar
  58. Lewis WJ, Beevers M, Nordlund DA, Gross HR, Hagen KS (1979) Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects. IX. Investigations of various kairomone treatment patterns for Trichogramma spp. J Chem Ecol 5:673–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewis WJ, Gross HR, Nordlund DA (1985) Behavioral manipulation of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Southwest Entomol Suppl No. 8:49–55Google Scholar
  60. Li LY (1994) Worldwide use of Trichogramma for biological control on different crops: a survey, In: wajnberg E, Hassan SA (eds) Biological control with egg parasitoids. CAB International, Oxon, UK, pp 37–51Google Scholar
  61. Liu ZC, Liu JF, Zhang F, Li DS, Feng XX (2000) Production and field application techniques of Trichogramma. Golden Shield Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  62. Loch AD, Walter GH (1999) Multiple host use by the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) in a soybean agricultural system: biological control and environmental implications. Agric For Entomol 1:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Losey JE, Calvin DD (1995) Quality assessment of four commercially available species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). J Econ Entomol 88:1243–1250Google Scholar
  64. Losey JE, Fleischer SJ, Calvin DD, Harkness WL, Leahy T (1995) Evaluation of Trichogramma nubilalis and Bacillus thuringiensis in management of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sweet corn. Environ Entomol 24:436–445Google Scholar
  65. Lundgren JG, Heimpel GE, Bomgren SA (2002) Comparison of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) augmentation with organic and synthetic pesticides for control of cruciferous Lepidoptera. Environ Entomol 31:1231–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manzoni CG, Gruetzmacher AD, Giolo FP, de Lima CAB, Noernberg SD, Mueller C, da R Haerter W (2006) Susceptibility of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) adults to fungicides used to control apple diseases. Neotrop Entomol 35:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martinez-Martinez L, Bernal JS (2002) Ephestia kuehniella Zeller as a factitious host for Telenomus remus Nixon: Host acceptance and suitability. J Entomol Sci 37:10–26Google Scholar
  68. Mertz BP, Fleischer SJ, Calvin DD, Ridgway RL (1995) Field assessment of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Bacillus thuringiensis for control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sweet corn. J Econ Entomol 88:1616–1625Google Scholar
  69. Mills NJ (1994a) Biological control: some emerging trends. In: Leather SR, Watt AD, Mills NJ and Walters KFA (eds), Individuals, Populations and Patterns in Ecology. Intercept, Andover, pp 213–222Google Scholar
  70. Mills NJ (1994b) Parasitoid guilds: defining the structure of the parasitoid communities of endopterygote insect hosts. Environ Entomol 23:1066–1083Google Scholar
  71. Mills NJ (2003) Augmentation in orchards: improving the efficacy of Trichogramma inundation. In: R. van Driesche (ed) 1st international symposium on biological control of arthropods. USDA Forest Service FHTET-03-05, pp 130–135Google Scholar
  72. Mills NJ, Pickel C, Mansfield S, McDougall S, Buchner R, Caprile J, Edstrom J, Elkins R, Hasey J, Kelley K, Krueger W, Olson W, Stocker R (2000) Trichogramma inundation: integrating parasitism into management of codling moth. Calif Agric 54(6):22–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nordlund DA, Chalfant RB, Lewis WJ (1985) Response of Trichogramma pretiosum to volatile synomones from tomato plants. J Entomol Sci 20:372–376Google Scholar
  74. Norton AP, Welter SC (1996) Augmentation of the egg parasitoid Anaphes iole (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) for Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) management in strawberries. Environ Entomol 25:1406–1414Google Scholar
  75. Orr BD (1988) Scelionid wasps as biological control agents–a review. Flo Entomol 71:506–528Google Scholar
  76. Parra JRP, Zucchi RA (2004) Trichogramma in Brasil: feasibility of use after twenty years of research. Neotrop Entomol 33:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pemberton CE (1964) Highlights in the history of entomology in Hawaii 1778-1963. Pac Insects 6:689–729Google Scholar
  78. Pereira JA, Bento A, Cabanas JE, Torres LM, Herz A, Hassan SA (2004) Ants as predators of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) applied for biological control of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Portugal. Biocontrol Sci Technol 14:653–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Piao YF, Yan S (1996) Progress of mass production and field application of Trichogramma dendrolimi. In: Zhang ZL, Piao YF, Wu JW (eds) Proceedings of the national symposium on IPM in China. China Agricultural Scientech Press, Beijing, pp 1135–1136Google Scholar
  80. Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic Wasps. Chapman and Hall, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao CVN, Rao NV, Bhavani B (2006) Efficacy of Trichogramma chilonis ishii against sugarcane early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus snellen under sugar factory operational areas of coastal Andhara Pradesh. J Biol Control 20:225–228Google Scholar
  82. Rao VP, Ghani MA, Sankaran T, Mather KC (1971) A Review of the Biological Control of Insects and Other Pests in South-East Asia and the Pacific Region. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham RoyalGoogle Scholar
  83. Romeis J, Babendreier D, Wackers FL, Shanower TG (2005) Habitat and plant specificity of Trichogramma egg parasitoids – underlying mechanisms and implications. Basic Appl Ecol 6:215–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schmidt U, Rupp J (1997) Zikadenschäden an Gurke auf der Insel Reicenau. Gemüse 12/97:691–692Google Scholar
  85. Scholz BCG, Monsour CJ, Zalucki MP (1998) An evaluation of selective Helicoverpa armigera control options in sweet corn. Aust J Exp Agric 38:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shanmugam PS, Thenesh KK, Satpute US (2005) Synomonic effects of plant extracts on parasitisation of Corcyra eggs by Trichogramma chilonis Ishii. J Appl Zool Res 16:13–14Google Scholar
  87. Smith RA, Nordlund DA (2000) Mass rearing technology for biological control agents of Lygus spp. Southwest Entomol Suppl 23:121–127Google Scholar
  88. Smith SM (1996) Biological control with Trichogramma: advances, successes, and potential of their use. Annu Rev Entomol 41:375–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stinner RE (1977) Efficacy of innundative releases. Ann Rev Entomol 22:515–531Google Scholar
  90. Suh CPC, Orr DB, Van Duyn JW (2000a) Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) releases in North Carolina cotton: Evaluation of heliothine pest suppression. J Econ Entomol 93:1127–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Suh CPC, Orr DB, Van Duyn JW (2000b) Trichogramma releases in North Carolina cotton: Why releases fail to suppress heliothine pests. J Econ Entomol 93:1137–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thomson LJ, Glenn DC, Hoffmann AA (2000) Effects of sulfur on Trichogramma egg parasitoids in vineyards: Measuring toxic effects and establishing release windows. Aust J Exp Agric 40:1165–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tipping PW, Holko CA, Abdul-Baki AA, Aldrich JR (1999) Evaluating Edovum puttleri Grissell and Podisus maculiventris (Say) for augmentative biological control of Colorado potato beetle in tomatoes. Biol Control 16:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Triapitsyn SV (2003) Taxonomic notes on the genera and species of Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) egg parasitoids of the proconiine sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Clypeorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Proconiini) in southeastern USA. Trans Am Entomol Soc 129:245–265Google Scholar
  95. Trumble JT, Alvarado-Rodriguez B (1993) Development and economic evaluation of an IPM program for fresh market tomato production in Mexico. Agric Ecosyst Environ 43:267–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Udayagiri S, Welter SC (2000) Escape of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) eggs from parasitism by Anaphes iole (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in strawberries: Plant structure effects. Biol Control 17:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ulmer BJ, Jacas JA, Peña JE, Duncan RE (2006) Effect of temperature on life history of Aprostocetus vaquitarum (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasitoid of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae). Biol Control 39:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. van Hamburg H, Hassell MP (1984) Density dependence and the augmentative release of egg parasitoids against graminaceous stalk borer. Ecol Entomol 9:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. van Lenteren JC (2000) Success in biological control of arthropods by augmentation of natural enemies, In: Gurr G, Wratten S (eds) Biological Control: measures of success. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 77–103Google Scholar
  100. van Lenteren JC, Bueno VHP (2003) Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America. BioControl 48:123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walker GP, Bayoun IM, Triapitsyn SV, Honda JY (2005) Taxonomy of Aphelinoidea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species attacking eggs of the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Zootaxa 1068:1–25Google Scholar
  102. Walker GP, Zareh N, Bayoun IM, Triapitsyn SV (1997) Introduction of western Asian egg parasitoids into California for biological control of beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus. Pan-Pacific Entomol 73:236–242Google Scholar
  103. Wang B, Ferro DN, Hosmer DW (1999) Effectiveness of Trichogramma ostriniae and T. nubilale for controlling the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis in sweet corn. Entomol Exp Appl 91:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang F, Zhang S, Hou S (1988) Inoculative release of Trichogramma dendrolimi in vegetable gardens to regulate populations of cotton pests. Les Colloques de l´INRA 43:613–620Google Scholar
  105. Wang Z, He K, Yan S (2005) Large-scale augmentative biological control of Asian corn borer using Trichogramma in China: a success story. In: Hoddle MS (ed) Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on biological control of arthropods. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2005-08, pp 487–494Google Scholar
  106. Waterhouse DF, Norris KR (1987) Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  107. Waterhouse DF, Norris KR (1989) Biological control – Pacific prospects. Supplement 1. Aust Centre Int Agric Res, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilson F (1960) A Review of the Biological Control of Insects and Weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham RoyalGoogle Scholar
  109. Zuniga SE (1985) Eighty years of biological control in Chile: historical review and evaluation of the projects undertaken 1903-1983. Agricultura Tecnica 45:175–184Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Policy and ManagementUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations