Do Infants Who Are Breast-fed Have an Altered Risk of Developing Cancer?

  • R. Martin
  • G. Davey Smith
  • D. Gunnell
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 639)

The idea that breast-fed infants may be at an increased risk of cancer has been around for at least 60 years. In the 1930s, John Bittner hypothesised on the basis of mouse studies that a factor, perhaps an oncogenic virus, transmitted through the mother’s milk was a cause of breast cancer in the offspring.1 Indeed, in the late 1960s mothers with a family history of breast cancer were advised not to breast-feed their daughters for fear of increasing their child’s risk of breast cancer.2 This historical context highlights the potentially important health policy and public health implications of understanding the long-term health consequences of being breast-fed. Whilst associations with cardiovascular disease have been the subject of a series of recent studies3–4, there has been less focus on cancer. As well as breast cancer5, other cancers have been reported in the epidemiological literature to be associated with having been breast-fed in infancy, including childhood haematological and solid tumours6, and testicular cancer in young men7 (Box 1).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bittner JJ (1937) Mammary tumours in mice in relation to nursing. Am J Cancer 30:530–538.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller RW & Fraumeni JF Jr (1972) Does breast-feeding increase the child’s risk of breast cancer? Pediatrics 49:645–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Martin RM, Davey Smith G, Tilling K, Frankel S, Gunnell D (2004) Breastfeeding and cardiovascular mortality: the Boyd Orr cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 25:778–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singhal A & Lucas A (2004) Early origins of cardiovascular disease: is there a unifying hypothesis? Lancet 363:1642–1645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michels KB, Trichopoulos D, Rosner BA et al (2001) Being breastfed in infancy and breast cancer incidence in adult life: results from the two nurses’ health studies. Am J Epidemiol 153:275–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators (2001) Breastfeeding and childhood cancer. Br J Cancer 85:1685–1694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coupland CAF (2004) Maternal risk factors for testicular cancer: a population-based case-control study (UK). Cancer Causes & Control 15:277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S (2002) Data dredging, bias, or confounding. BMJ 325:1437–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ursin G, Bernstein L, Wang Y et al (2004) Reproductive factors and risk of breast carcinoma in a study of white and African-American women. Cancer 101:353–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCance RA (1962) Food, growth and time. The second Lumleian lecture for 1962 delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London on May 2. Lancet ii:671–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ross MH & Bras G (1971) Lasting influence of early caloric restriction on prevalence of neoplasms in the rat. J Nat Cancer Inst 47:1095–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gunnell D, Okasha M, Davey Smith G, Oliver SE, Sandhu J, Holly JMP (2001) Height, leg length, and cancer risk: a systematic review. Epidemiol Rev 23:313–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gunnell D (2002) Can adult anthropometry be used as a biomarker for prenatal and childhood exposures? Int J Epidemiol 31:390–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hill A (1893) Infant mortality in Birmingham. Public Health VI:18–20.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gunnell DJ, Davey Smith G, Frankel SJ, Kemp M, Peters TJ (1998) Socio-economic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937–39). Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 12(Suppl. 1):96–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gunnell DJ, Davey Smith G, Holly JMP, Frankel S (1998) Leg length and risk of cancer in the Boyd Orr cohort. BMJ 317:1350–1351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gunnell DJ, Davey Smith G, McConnachie A, Greenwood R, Upton M, Frankel S (1999) Separating in-utero and postnatal influences on later disease. Lancet 54:1526–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin RM, Davey Smith G, Mangtani P, Frankel S, Gunnell D (2002) Association between breast-feeding and growth: The Boyd-Orr cohort study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 87:F193–F201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wadsworth ME, Hardy RJ, Paul AA, Marshall SF, Cole TJ (2002) Leg and trunk length at 43 years in relation to childhood health, diet and family circumstances; evidence from the 1946 national birth cohort. Int J Epidemiol 31:383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martin RM, Davey Smith G, Frankel S, Gunnell D (2004) Parents’ growth in childhood and the birth weight of their offspring. Epidemiology 15:308–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li L, Manor O, Power C (2004) Early environment and child-to-adult growth trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 80:185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grulee CG, Sanford HN, Schwartz H (1935) Breast and artificially fed infants: a study of the age incidence in the morbidity and mortality in twenty thousand cases. JAMA 104:1986–1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Infant Mortality (2000) Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. Lancet 355:451–455.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Victora CG, Barros F, Lima RC, Horta BL, Wells J (2003) Anthropometry and body composition of 18 year old men according to duration of breast-feeding: birth cohort study from Brazil. BMJ 327:901–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fall CH, Pandit AN, Law CM et al (1995) Size at birth and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. Arch Dis Child 73:287–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davey Smith G, Gunnell D, Holly J (2000) Cancer and insulin-like growth factor-I. BMJ 321:847–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Renehan AG, Zwahlen M, Minder PC, O’Dwyer ST, Shalet PS, Egger PM (2004) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet 363:1346–1353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thissen JP, Ketelslegers JM, Underwood LE (1994) Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Endocr Rev 15:80–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC, Hankinson SE (2002) Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:852–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Probst-Hensch NM, Wang H, Goh VHH, Seow A, Lee HP, Yu MC (2003) Determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations in a cohort of Singapore men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:739–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gunnell D, Oliver SE, Peters TJ et al (2003) Are diet-prostate cancer associations mediated by the IGF axis? A cross-sectional analysis of diet, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in healthy middle-aged men. Br J Cancer 88:1682–1686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frankel S, Gunnell DJ, Peters TJ, Maynard M., Davey Smith G (1998) Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the boyd orr cohort study. BMJ 316:499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dunn SE, Kari FW, French J et al (1997) Dietary restriction reduces insulin-like growth factor I levels, which modulates apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res 57:4667–4672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Diaz-Gomez NM, Domenech E, Barroso F (1997) Breast-feeding and growth factors in preterm newborn infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 24:322–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ong KK, Preece MA, Emmett P, Ahmed ML, Dunger DB, The ALSPAC study team, (2002) Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longituduinal birth cohort study and analysis. Pediatr Res 52:863–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG (1993) Energy and protein intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their association with growth velocity: the DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 58:152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Michaelsen KF (1997) Nutrition and growth during infancy. The Copenhagen cohort study. Acta Paediatr Suppl 420:1–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    de Bruin NC, Degenhart HJ, Gal S, Westerterp KR, Stijnen T, Visser HK (1998) Energy utilization and growth in breast-fed and formula-fed infants measured prospectively during the first year of life. Am J Clin Nutr 67:885–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Atladottir H, Thorsdottir I (2000) Energy intake and growth of infants in Iceland — A population with high frequency of breast-feeding and high birth weight. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:695–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elias SG, Keinan-Boker L, Peeters PH et al (2004) Long term consequences of the 1944–1945 Dutch famine on the insulin-like growth factor axis. Int J Cancer 108:628–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karmaus W, DeKoning EP, Kruse H, Witten J, Osius N (2001) Early Childhood Determinants of Organochlorine Concentrations in School-Aged Children. Ped Res 50:331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S (2004) Hyperinsulinaemia and increased risk of breast cancer: findings from the British women’s heart and health study. Cancer Causes & Control 15:267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Laukkanen JA, Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Pukkala E, Hakkarainen A, Salonen JT (2004) Metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men: A population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1646–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Singhal A, Fewtrell M, Cole TJ, Lucas A (2003) Low nutrient intake and early growth for later insulin resistance in adolescents born preterm. Lancet 361:1089–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Greaves MF (1997) Aetiology of acute leukaemia. Lancet 349:344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blair V, Birch JM (1994) Patterns and temporal trends in the incidence of malignant disease in children: I. Leukaemia and lymphoma. Eur J Cancer 30:1490–1498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kinlen LJ, Balkwill A (2001) Infective cause of childhood leukaemia and wartime population mixing in Orkney and Shetland, UK. Lancet 357:858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jourdan-Da SN, Perel Y, Mechinaud F et al (2004) Infectious diseases in the first year of life, perinatal characteristics and childhood acute leukaemia. Br J Cancer 90:139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Perrillat F, Clavel J, Auclerc MF et al (2002) Day-care, early common infections and childhood acute leukaemia: a multicentre French case-control study. Br J Cancer 86:1064–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Infante-Rivard C, Fortier I, Olson E (2000) Markers of infection, breast-feeding and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Cancer 83:1559–1564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McKinney PA, Juszczak E, Findlay E, Smith K, Thomson CS (1999) Pre- and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukaemia and other malignancies: a Scottish case control study. Br J Cancer 80:1844–1851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    van Steensel-Moll HA, Valkenburg HA, van Zanen GE (1986) Childhood leukemia and infectious diseases in the first year of life: a register-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 124:590–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Murray L, McCarron P, Bailie K et al (2002) Association of early life factors and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood: historical cohort study. Br J Cancer 86:356–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hartley AL, Birch JM, McKinney PA et al (1988) The Inter-Regional Epidemiological Study of Childhood Cancer (IRESCC): past medical history in children with cancer. J Epidemiol Comm Health 42:235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pabst HF (1997) Immunomodulation by breast-feeding. Pediatric Infect Dis J 16:991–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shu XO, Nesbit ME, Buckley JD, Krailo MD, Robinson LL (1995) An exploratory analysis of risk factors for childhood malignant germ-cell tumors: report from the Childrens Cancer Group (Canada, United States). Cancer Causes & Control 6:187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schuz J, Kaletsch U, Kaatsch P, Meinert R, Michaelis J (2001) Risk factors for pediatric tumors of the central nervous system: results from a German population-based case-control study. Med Pediat Oncol 36:274–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Menegaux F, Olshan AF, Neglia JP, Pollock BH, Bondy ML (2004) Day care, childhood infections, and risk of neuroblastoma. Am J Epidemiol 159:843–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N (1993) Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J Nat Cancer Inst 85:648–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, Laden F et al (1997) Plasma Organochlorine Levels and the Risk of Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 337:1253–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Parker L (2001) Breast-feeding and cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer 37:155–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Davis MK (1998) Review of the evidence for an association between infant feeding and childhood cancer. Int J Cancer Supplement 11:29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Davis MK (2001) Breastfeeding and chronic disease in childhood and adolescence. Pediat Clin N Am 48:125–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Parker L (2001) Breast-feeding and cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer 37:155–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tripathy AK, Mishra L, Bakhshi S, Arya LS (2004) Breast-feeding and childhood hematological malignancy. Ind J Ped 71:417–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lancashire RJ, Sorahan T, OSCC (2003) Breastfeeding and childhood cancer risks: OSCC data. Br J Cancer 88:1035–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perrillat F, Clavel J, Jaussent, I et al (2002) Breast-feeding, fetal loss and childhood acute leukaemia. Eur J Ped 161:235–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Daniels XL, Olshan AF, Pollock BH, Shah NR, Stram DO (2002) Breast-feeding and neuroblastoma, USA and Canada. Cancer Causes & Control 13:401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hardell L, Dreifaldt AC (2001) Breast-feeding duration and the risk of malignant diseases in childhood in Sweden. EurJ Clin Nutr 55:179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bener A, Denic S, Galadari S (2001) Longer breast-feeding and protection against childhood leukaemia and lymphomas. Eur J Cancer 37:234–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rosenbaum PF, Buck GM, Brecher ML (2000) Breastfeeding and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Paediatr Perinatal Epidemiol 14:A26.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dockerty JD, Skegg DC, Elwood JM, Herbison GP, Becroft DM, Lewis ME (1999) Infections, vaccinations, and the risk of childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 80:1483–1489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smulevich VB, Solionova LG, Belyakova SV (1999) Parental occupation and other factors and cancer risk in children: I. Study methodology and non-occupational factors. Int J Cancer 83:712–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schuz J, Kaletsch U, Meinert R, Kaatsch P, Michaelis J (1999) Association of childhood leukaemia with factors related to the immune system. Br J Cancer 80:585–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shu XO, Linet MS, Steinbuch M et al (1999) Breast-feeding and risk of childhood acute leukemia. J Nat Cancer Inst 91:1765–1772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grufferman S, Davis MK, Ambinder RF, Shugart AA, Gilchrist GS, Brecher ML (1998) A protective effect of breastfeeding on risk of Hodgkin’s Disease in children. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiol 12:A13.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Petridou E, Trichopoulos D, Kalapothaki V et al (1997) The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece: a nationwide case-control study. Br J Cancer 76:1241–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mathur GP, Gupta N, Mathur S et al (1993) Breastfeeding and childhood cancer. Indian Pediatrics 30:651–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schwartzbaum JA, George SL, Pratt CB, Davis B (1991) An exploratory study of environmental and medical factors potentially related to childhood cancer. Medical & Pediatric Oncol 19:115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Golding J, Paterson M, Kinlen LJ (1990) Factors associated with childhood cancer in a national cohort study. Br J Cancer 62:304–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Birch JM, Hartley AL, Teare MD et al (1990) The inter-regional epidemiological study of childhood cancer (IRESCC): case-control study of children with central nervous system tumours. Br J Neurosurg 4:17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Magnani C, Pastore G, Terracini B (1988) Infant feeding and childhood cancer. Lancet 2:1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Davis MK, Savitz DA, Graubard BI. (1988) Infant feeding and childhood cancer. Lancet 2:365–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van Duijn CM, van Steensel-Moll HA, van der Does-vd Berg A et al (1988) Infant feeding and childhood cancer. Lancet 2:796–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    McKinney PA, Cartwright RA, Saiu JM et al (1987) The inter-regional epidemiological study of childhood cancer (IRESCC): a case control study of aetiological factors in leukaemia and lymphoma. Arch Dis Child 62:279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Huttly SR, Barros FC, Victora CG, Beria JU, Vaughan JP (1990) Do mothers overestimate breast-feeding duration? An example of recall bias from a study in southern Brazil. Am J Epidemiol 132:572–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Penrose LS, MacKenzie HJ, Kam MN (1948) A genetic study of human mammary cancer. Br J Cancer 2:168–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bucalossi P, Veronesi U (1957) Some observations on cancer of the breast in mothers and daughters. Br J Cancer 11:337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tokuhata GK (1969) Morbidity and mortality among offspring of breast cancer mothers. Am J Epidemiol 89:139–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Henderson BE, Powell D, Rosario I et al (1974) An epidemiologic study of breast cancer. J Nat Cancer Inst 53:609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Newcomb PA et al (1998) Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult breast cancer risk. J Nat Cancer Inst 90:921–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wingard DL, Criqui MH, Edelstein SL et al (1994) Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity? Am J Public Health 84:1458–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sanderson M, Williams MA, Daling JR et al (1998) Maternal factors and breast cancer risk among young women. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiol 12:397–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weiss HA, Potischman NA, Brinton LA et al (1997) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Epidemiology 8:181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Graham S et al (1994) Exposure to breastmilk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology 5:324–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ekbom A, Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D, Yen YY, Petridou E, Adami HO (1993) Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring. Br J Cancer 67:842–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brinton LA, Hoover R, Fraumeni JF Jr (1983) Reproductive factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 47:757–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mori M, Davies TW, Miyake H, Masuoka H, Kumamoto Y, Tsukamoto T (1990) Maternal factors of testicular cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Jap J Clin Oncol 20:72–77.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Henderson BE, Benton B, Jing J, Yu MC, Pike MC (1979) Risk factors for cancer of the testis in young men. Int J Cancer 23:598–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED et al (2001) Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA 285:413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kramer MS, Guo T, Platt RW et al (2002) Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias? Pediatrics 110:343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B (1992) Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 89:1035–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wright AL (2001) The rise of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatr Clin N Am 48:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ryan AS (1997) The resurgence of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics 99:E12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Smith MA, Simon R, Strickler HD, McQuillan G, Ries LA, Linet MS (1998) Evidence that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with an infectious agent linked to hygiene conditions. Cancer Causes Control 9:285–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    von Elm E, Egger M (2004) The scandal of poor epidemiological research. BMJ 329:868–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ben-Shlomo Y, Holly J, McCarthy A, Savage P, Davies D, Davey Smith G. (2005) Pre and post natal milk supplementation and adult insulin-like growth factor I: Long term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 14:1336–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Martin RM, Holly JMP, Davey Smith G, Ness AN, Emmett P, Rogers I, Gunnell D. (2005) Could associations between breastfeeding and insulin-like growth factors underlie associations of breastfeeding with adult chronic disease? The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Clinical Endocrinology 62:728–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Martin RM, Gunnell D, Owen CG, Davey Smith G. (2005) Breastfeeding and childhood cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. International Journal of Cancer 117:1020–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Martin RM, Mittleton N, Gunnell D, Owen CG, Davey Smith G. (2005) Breastfeeding and cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal National Cancer Institute 97:1446–1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Martin
    • 1
  • G. Davey Smith
    • 1
  • D. Gunnell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social MedicineUniversity of BristolUK

Personalised recommendations