Advertisement

Ecosystem Modelling Using the Ecopath with Ecosim Approach

  • Marta Coll
  • Alida Bundy
  • Lynne J. Shannon

Keywords

Fishery Management Fishing Effort Fishing Mortality Venice Lagoon Manila Clam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth C, Heymans JJ, Pitcher T, Vasconcellos M (2002) Ecosystem models of Northern British Columbia for the time periods 2000, 1950, 1900 and 1750. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 10(4): 41 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Allen R (1971) Relation between production and biomass. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28: 1573–1581.Google Scholar
  3. Arias-Gonzalez JE, Delesalle B, Salvat B, Galzin R (1997) Trophic functioning of the Tiahura reef sector, Moorea Island, French Polynesia. Coral Reefs, 16: 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arreguín-Sánchez F (2000). Octopus-red grouper interaction in the exploited ecosystem of the northern continental shelf of Yucatan, Mexico. Ecological Modelling, 129: 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arreguín-Sánchez F, Manickchand-Heileman S (1998) The trophic role of lutjanid fish and impacts of their fisheries in two ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Fish Biology, 53(Suppl. A): 143–153.Google Scholar
  6. Arreguín-Sánchez F, Arcos E, Chávez EA (2002) Flow of biomass and structure in an exploited benthic ecosystem in the gulf of California, Mexico. Ecological Modelling, 156: 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arreguín-Sánchez F, Hernández-Herrera A, Ramírez-Rodríguez M, Pérez-España H (2004) Optimal management scenarios for the artisanal fisheries in the ecosystem of La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ecological Modelling 172: 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aydin KY (2004) Age structure or functional response? Reconciling the energetics of surplus production between single-species models and Ecosim. In. Shannon LJ, Cochrane KL, Pillar SC (Eds.), An ecosystem approach to fisheries in the southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science, 26: 289–301.Google Scholar
  9. Aydin KY, Friday N (2001) The early development of Ecosim as a predictive multi-species fisheries management tool. Document presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, July 2001. SC/53/E3: 8 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Aydin KY, McFarlane GA, King JR, Megrey BA, Myers KW (2005) Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) using models on three scales. Deep Sea Research II, 52: 757–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bianchi G, Gislason H, Hill L, Koranteg K, Manickshand-Heileman S, Paya I, Sainsbury K, Sánchez F, Jin X, Zwanenburg K (2000) Impact of fishing on demersal fish assemblages. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 558–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Booth S, Zeller D (2005) Mercury, food webs and marine mammals: implications of diet and climate change for human health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(5): 521–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradford -Grieve JM et al. (2003) Pilot trophic model for subantarctic water over the Southern Plateau, New Zealand: a low biomass, high transfer efficiency system. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 289: 223–262.Google Scholar
  14. Brando VE, Ceccarelli R, Libralato S, Ravagnan G (2004) Assessment of environmental management effects in a shallow water basin using mass-balance models. Ecological Modelling, 172(2–4): 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bundy A (1997) Assessment and management of multispecies, multigear fisheries: a case study from San Miguel Bay, the Philippines. Ph.D. Thesis. University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  16. Bundy A (2001) Fishing on ecosystems: the interplay of fishing and predation in Newfoundland-Labrador. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 58: 1153–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bundy A (2004a) The ecological effects of fishing and implications for coastal management in San Miguel Bay, the Philippines. Coastal Management 32: 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bundy A (2004b) Mass balance models of the eastern Scotian Shelf before and after the cod collapse and other ecosystem changes. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2520. 205 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Bundy A (2005) Structure and function of the eastern Scotian shelf Ecosystem before and after the groundfish collapse in the early 1990s. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 62(7): 1453–1473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bundy A, Pauly D (2001) Selective harvesting by small-scale fisheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines. Fisheries Research 53: 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bundy A, Fanning P (2005) Can Atlantic cod recover? Exploring trophic explanations for the non-recovery of cod on the eastern Scotian Shelf, Canada. CJFAS 62(7): 1474–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bundy A, Lilly G, Shelton P (2000) A mass balance model of the Newfoundland-Labrador shelf. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2310, 117 pp + App.Google Scholar
  23. Christensen V (1996) Managing fisheries involving predator and prey species. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6: 417–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christensen V (1995a) A model of trophic interactions in the North Sea in 1981, The year of the stomach. Dana, 11(1): 1–28.Google Scholar
  25. Christensen, V (1995b) Ecosystem maturity – towards quantification. Ecological Modelling, 77: 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christensen V (1998) Fishery-induced changes in a marine ecosystem: insight from models of the Gulf of Thailand. Journal of Fish Biology, 53(Supplement A): 128–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Christensen V (2000) Indicators for marine ecosystem affected by fisheries. Marine and Freshwater Research, 51: 447–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Christensen V, Pauly D (1992) Ecopath II. A software for balancing steady-state models and calculating network characteristics. Ecological Modelling, 61, 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Christensen V, Pauly D (Eds.) (1993) Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM, Manila, Philipinas, 26: 390 p.Google Scholar
  30. Christensen V, Pauly D (1995) Fish production, catches and the carrying capacity of the world oceans. Naga 18(3): 34–40.Google Scholar
  31. Christensen V, and Pauly D (1996) Ecological modelling for all. Naga 19(2): 25–26.Google Scholar
  32. Christensen V, Pauly D (1998) Changes in models of aquatic ecosystems approaching carrying capacity. Ecological Applications, 8(Suppl. 1): 104–109.Google Scholar
  33. Christensen V, Walters CJ (2000) Ecopath with Ecosim: methods, capabilities and limitations. In Pauly D, Pitcher TJ (Eds.), Methods for assessing the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 8: 79–105.Google Scholar
  34. Christensen V, Walters C (2004a) Ecopath with Ecosim: methods, capabilities and limitations. Ecological Modelling, 172(2–4): 109–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Christensen V, Walters CJ (2004b) Trade-offs in ecosystem-scale optimization of fisheries management policies. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(3): 549–562.Google Scholar
  36. Christensen V, Walters CJ, Pauly D (2000) Ecopath with Ecosim: users guide and help files. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  37. Christensen V, Walters CJ, Pauly D (2005) Ecopath with Ecosim: a User’s guide. Fisheries Centre of University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 154 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Ciannelli L, Robson BW, Francis RC, Aydin KY, Brodeur RD (2005). Boundaries of open marine ecosystems: an application to the Pribilof Archipelago, Southeast Bering Sea. Ecological Applications, 14(3): 942–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coll M, Palomera I, Tudela S, Sardà F (2006a) Trophic flows, ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the South Catalan Sea, Northwestern Mediterranean. Journal of Marine Systems, 59: 63–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Coll M, Shannon LJ, Moloney CL, Palomera I, Tudela S (2006b) Comparing trophic flows and fishing impacts of a NW Mediterranean ecosystem with coastal upwellings by means of standardized ecological models and indicators. Ecological Modelling, 198: 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Coll M, Santojanni A, Arneri E, Palomera I, Tudela S (2007) An ecosystem model of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea: analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts. Journal of Marine Systems, 67: 119–154.Google Scholar
  42. Coll M, Bahamon N, Sardà F, Palomera I, Tudela S, Suuronen P. (2008a) Ecosystem effects of improved trawl selectivity in the South Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 355: 131–147 .Google Scholar
  43. Coll M, Palomera I, Tudela S, Dowd M (2008b) Food-web dynamics in the South Catalan Sea ecosystem (NW Mediterranean) for 1978–2003. Ecological Modelling, 217(1–2): 95–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cox SP, Essington TE, Kitchell JF, Martell SJD, Walters CJ, Boggs C, Kaplan I (2002) Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, 1952–1998. 2. A preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 59: 1736–1747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Crawford RJM, Cruikshank RA, Shelton PA, Kruger I (1985) Partitioning of a goby resource amongst four avian predators and evidence for altered trophic flow in the pelagic community of an intense, perennial upwelling system. South African Journal of Marine Science 3: 215–228.Google Scholar
  46. Criales-Hernandez MI, Duarte LO, García CB, Manjarrés L (2006) Ecosystem impact of the introduction of bycatch reduction devices in a tropical shrimp trawl fishery: insights through simulation. Fisheries Research, 77: 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cury P (2004) Tuning the ecoscope for the ecosystem approach to fisheries. In: Perspectives on ecosystem-based approaches to the management of marine resources. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 274: 272–275.Google Scholar
  48. Cury P, Shannon LJ, Roux J–P, Daskalov G, Jarre A, Pauly D, Moloney CL (2005) Trophodynamic indicators for an ecosystem approach to fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 430–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dalsgaard J, Wallace SS, Salas S, Preikshot D (1998) Mass-balance model reconstruction of the Strait of Georgia: the present, one hundred, and five hundred years ago. Back to the Future: Reconstructing the Strait of Georgia Ecosystem. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 6(5): 72–91.Google Scholar
  50. Daskalov GM (2002) Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 225: 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Drapeau L, Pecquerie L, Fréon P, Shannon LJ (2004) Quantification and representation of potential spatial interactions in the Southern Benguela ecosystem. In An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the Southern Benguela. Shannon, L.J., K.L. Cochrane, and S.C. Pillar (Eds). African Journal of Marine Science 26: 141–159.Google Scholar
  52. FAO (2005) Review of the State of World Marine Fishery Resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 457, Rome, 235 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Fearon JJ, Boyd AJ, Schülein FH (1992) Views on the biomass and distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Linné, 1766) and Aequorea aequorea (Kosrkal, 1775) off Namibia, 1982–1988. Scientia Marina 56: 75–85.Google Scholar
  54. Fréon P, Drapeau L, David JHM, Fernández Moreno A, Leslie RW, Oosthuizen H, Shannon LJ, Van der Lingen C (2005) Spatialized ecosystem indicators in the southern Benguela. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62(3): 459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fulton EA, Smith ADM (2004) Lessons learnt from a comparison of three ecosystem models for Port Phillip Bay, Australia. In. Shannon LJ, Cochrane KL, Pillar SC (Eds.), An ecosystem approach to fisheries in the southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science 26: 219–243.Google Scholar
  56. Gaichas SK (2006) Development and application of ecosystem models to support fishery sustainability: a case study for the Gulf of Alaska. PhD dissertation. University of Washington. 371 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Gasalla MA, Rossi-Wongtschowski CLDB (2004) Contribution of ecosystem analysis to investigating the effects of changes in fishing strategies in the South Brazil Bight coastal ecosystem. Ecological Modelling, 172: 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gucu AC (2002) Can overfishing be responsible for the successful establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54: 439–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Halfon E, Schito N (1993) Lake Ontario food web, an energetic mass balance. ICLARM conference proceedings. Manila 1993.Google Scholar
  60. Heymans JJ (2004) The effects of Internal and external control on the Northern Benguela ecosystem. In. Sumaila UR, Skogen SI, Boyer D (Eds.), Namibia's Fisheries. Ecological, economic and social aspects. Eburon Academic Publishers. 29–52.Google Scholar
  61. Heymans JJ, Baird D (2000) Network analysis of the Northern Benguela ecosystem by means of NETWRK and Ecopath. Ecological Modelling, 131(2/3): 97–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heymans JJ, Shannon LJ, Jarre-Teichmann A (2004) Changes in the northern Benguela ecosystem over three decades: 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Ecological Modelling, 172, 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hilborn R, Walters CJ (1992) Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment. Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 570 pp.Google Scholar
  64. Innes S, Lavigne DM, Earle WM, kovacs KM (1987) Feeding rates of seals and whales. Journal of Animal Ecology, 56: 115–130 .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jarre-Teichmann A, Shannon LJ, Moloney CL, Wickens PA (1998) Comparing trophic flows in the southern Benguela to those in other upwelling ecosystems. In. Pillar SC, Moloney CL, Payne AIL, Shillington FA (Eds.), Benguela dynamics: impacts of variability on shelf-sea environments and their living resources. South African Journal of Marine Science 19: 391–414.Google Scholar
  66. Jennings S, Greenstreet SPR, Hill L, Piet GJ, Pinnegar JK, Warr KL (2002) Long-term trends in the trophic sturcture of the North Sea fish community: evidence from stable-isotope analysis, size-spectra and community metrics. Marine Biology, 141: 1085–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kavanagh P, Newlands N, Christensen V, Pauly D (2004) Automated parameter optimization for Ecopath ecosystem models. Ecological Modelling, 172(2–4): 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kitchell JF, Kaplan IC, Cox SP, Martell SJD, Essington TE, Boggs CH, Walters CJ (2002) Ecological and economic components of alternative fishing methods to reduce by-catch of marlin in a tropical pelagic ecosystem. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(3): 607–618.Google Scholar
  69. Lam VWY, Pauly D (2005) Mapping the global biomass of mesopelagic fishes. Sea Around Us Project Newsletter. 30: 4.Google Scholar
  70. Lalli CM, Parsons TR (1993) Biological oceanography: an introduction. Pergamon Press, Oxford. p. 296.Google Scholar
  71. Leontief WW (1951) The structure of the US economy. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Libralato S, Cossarini G, Solidoro C (2005) Ecosystem approach with trophic web models: methodological evidences from the Venice Lagoon application. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Ecological Modelling, Pushchino, Russia.Google Scholar
  73. Libralato S, Christensen V, Pauly D (2006) A method for identifying keystone species in food web models. Ecological Modelling, 195(3–4): 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Libralato S, Coll M, Tudela S, Palomera I, Pranovi F. (2008) A new index to quantify the ecosystem impacts of fisheries as the removal of secondary production. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 355: 107–129 .Google Scholar
  75. Libralato S, Pastres R, Pranovi R, Raicevich S, Granzotto A, Giovanardi O, Torricelli P (2002) Comparison between the energy flow networks of two habitat in the Venice lagoon. P.S.Z.N. Marine Ecology, 23: 228–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lin H-J, Shao K-T, Hwang J-S, Lo W-T, Cheng I-J, Lee L-H (2004) A trophic model for Kuosheng Bay in Northern Taiwan. Journal of Marine Science Technology, 12: 424–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lindeman RL (1942) The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology, 23: 399–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lluch-Belda D, Crawford RJM, Kawasaki T, MacCall AD, Parrish RH, Schwartzlose RA, Smith PE (1989) World-wide fluctuations of sardine and anchovy stocks: the regime problem. South African Journal of Marine Science, 8: 195–205.Google Scholar
  79. Lluch-Belda D, Schwartzlose RA, Serra R, Parrish R, Kawasaki T, Hedgecock D, Crawford RJM (1992a) Sardine and anchovy regime fluctuations of abundance in four regions of the world oceans: a workshop report. Fisheries Oceanography, 1(4): 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lluch-Belda D, Hernandez-Vazquez S, Lluch-Cota DB, Salinas-Zavala CA, Schwartzlose RA (1992b) The recovery of the California sardine as related to global change. CalCOFI Reports, 33: 50–59.Google Scholar
  81. Mackinson S, Daskalov G (2007) An ecosystem model of the North Sea to support and ecosystem approach to fisheries management: description and parameterisation. Cefas Science Series Technical Report, 142: 195.Google Scholar
  82. Mackinson S, Vasconcellos M, Pitcher T, Walters CJ (1997) Ecosystem Impacts of harvesting small pelagic fish in upwelling systems: using a dynamic mass-balance model. Proceedings Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-97-01. 731–748.Google Scholar
  83. Mackinson S, Blanchard JL, Pinnegar JK, Scott R (2003) Consequences of alternative functional response formulations in models exploring whale-fishery interactions. Marine Mammal Science, 19(4): 661–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mackinson S, Daskalov G, Heymans JJ, Neira S, Arancibia H, Zetina-Rejón M, Jiang H, Cheng HQ, Coll M, Arreguin-Sanchez F, Keeble K, Shannon L Which forcing factors fit? Using ecosystem models to investigate the relative influence of fishing and changes in primary productivity on the dynamics of marine ecosystems. Ecological Modelling, in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Magnússon KG (1995) An overview of the multispecies VPA – theory and applications. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 5: 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Magnusson KG (1999) Biological interactions in fish stocks: models and reality. Rit. Fiskideildar 16: 295–305.Google Scholar
  87. Margalef R (1968) Perspectives in Theoretical Ecology. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, London. 111 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Martell S, Essington TE, Lessard B, Kitchell JF, Walters CJ, Boggs CH (2005) Interactions of productivity, predation risk and fishing effort in the efficacy of marine protected areas for the central Pacific. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 62: 1320–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McAllister M.K., Pikitch E.K., Punt A.E., Hilborn R. (1994) A Bayesian approach to stock assessment and harvest decisions using the sampling importance resampling algorithm. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51(12): 2673–2687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McCloud KL et al. (2005) Scientific consensus statement on marine ecosystem-based management. Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea (http://compassonline.org/?q=EBM).
  91. Moloney C, Jarre A, Arancibia H, Bozec Y-M, Neira S, Roux J-P, Shannon LJ (2005) Comparing the Benguela and Humboldt marine upwelling ecosystems with indicators derived from inter-calibrated models. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62(3): 493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Morrissette L (2007) Complexity, cost and quality of ecosystem models and their impact on resilience: a comparative analysis, with emphasis on marine mammals and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. PhD thesis. University of British Columbia. 278 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Müller F. (1997) State-of-the-art in ecosystem theory. Ecological Modelling, 100: 135–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Murawski S.A. (1991) Can we manage our multispecies fisheries? Fisheries, 16(5): 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Murawski S.A. (2000) Definitions of overfishing from an ecosystem perspective. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 649–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Neira S, Arancibia H (2004) Trophic interactions and community structure in the upwelling system off Central Chile (33–39°S). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 312(2): 349–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Neira S, Arancibia H, Cubillos L (2004) Comparative analysis of trophic structure of commercial fishery species off central Chile in 1992 and 1998. Ecological Modelling, 172(1–4): 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Neira S, Moloney C, Cury P, Arancibia H. (in prep .) Analyzing changes in the southern Humboldt ecosystem for the period 1970–2004 by means of trophic/food web modeling (in preparation to be submitted to Fish and Fisheries).Google Scholar
  99. Nilsson SG, Nilsson IN (1976) Number, food and consumption, and fish predation by birds in Lake Mockeln, Southern Sweden. Ornis Scandinavian, 7: 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Odum EP (1969) The strategy of ecosystem development. Science, 104: 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Odum WE, Heald EJ (1975) The detritus-based food web for an estuarine mangrove community. In. Cronin LE (Ed.), Estuarine Research, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Okey T (2004) Shifted community states in four marine ecosystems: some potential mechanisms. PhD dissertation. University of British Columbia. 185 pp.Google Scholar
  103. Okey T, Pauly D (1999) A trophic mass-balance model of Alaska’s Prince William Sound ecosystem, for the post-spill period 1994–1996, 2nd edn. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 7(4): 146 pp.Google Scholar
  104. Okey T., Wright BA (2004) Towards ecosystem-based extraction policies for Prince William Sound, Alaska: integrating conflicting objectives and rebuilding pinnipeds. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(3): 727–747.Google Scholar
  105. Okey TA, Banks S, Born AF, Bustamante RH, Calvopin^a M, Edgar GJ, Espinoza E, Farin^a JM, Garske LE, Reck GK (2004) A trophic model of a Galápagos subtidal rocky reef for evaluating fisheries and conservation strategies Ecological Modelling, 172: 383–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ortiz M, Wolff M (2002a) Dynamical simulation of mass-balance trophic models for benthic communities of north-central Chile: assessment of resilience time under alternative management scenarios. Ecological Modelling, 148: 277–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ortiz M, Wolff M (2002b) Spatailly explicit trophic modelling of a harvested benthic ecosystem in Tongoy Bay (central northern Chile). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12: 601–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pauly D (1980) On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. Journal du Conseil, Conseil Intérnational pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 39: 175–192.Google Scholar
  109. Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature, 374: 255–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pauly D, Christensen V (2004) Ecosystem models. In. Hart PJB, Reynolds JD (Eds.), Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Blacwell. 211–227.Google Scholar
  111. Pauly D, Christensen V, Sambilay V (1990) Some features of fish food consumption estimates used by ecosystem modellers. ICES Council Meeting 1990/G:17, 8p.Google Scholar
  112. Pauly D, Christensen V, Walters C (2000) Ecopath, Ecosim and Ecospace as tools for evaluating ecosystem impact of fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 697–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres FJ (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science, 279, 860–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pikitch EK, Santora C, Badcock E., Bakun A, Bonfil R, Conover DO, Dayton P, Doukakis P, Fluharty D, Heneman B, Houde ED, Link J, Livingston PA, Mangel M, McAllister MK, Pope J, Sainsborry KJ (2004) Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science, 305: 346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pimm SL, Lawton JH, Cohen JE (1991) Food web patterns and their consequences. Nature, 275: 542–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pinnegar JK (2000) Planktivorous fishes: links between the Mediterranean littoral and pelagic. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. 213 pp.Google Scholar
  117. Pinnegar JK, Jennings S, O'Brien CM, Polunin NVC (2002) Long-term changes in the trophic level of the Celtic Sea fish community and fish market price distribution. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39: 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pitcher TJ (2001) Fisheries manager to rebuild ecosystems? Reconstructing the past to salvage the future. Ecological Applications, 11(2): 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pitcher TJ (2005) Back-to-the-future: a fresh policy initiative for fisheries and a restoration ecology for ocean ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360(1453): 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pitcher T, Cochrane K (2002) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 10(2): 156 pp.Google Scholar
  121. Pitcher TJ, Heymans JJ, Vasconcellos M (2002a) Ecosystem models of Newfoundland for the time periods 1995, 1985, 1900 and 1450. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 10(5): 74 pp.Google Scholar
  122. Pitcher TJ, Buchary E, Hutton T (2002b) Forecasting the benefits of no-take human made reefs using spatial ecosystem simulation. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: S17–S26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Plagányi ÉE, Butterworth DS (2004) A critical look at the potential of Ecopath with Ecosim to assist in practical fisheries management. African Journal of Marine Science, 26: 261–288.Google Scholar
  124. Polovina JJ (1984) Model of a coral reef ecosystem. The ECOPATH model and its application to French Frigate Shoals. Coral Reefs, 3(1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Power ME, Tilman D, Ester JA, Menge BA, Bond WA, Mills LS, Daily G, Castilla JC, Lubchenco J, Paine RT (1996) Challenge in the question for Keystones. Bioscience, 46(8): 609–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pranovi F, Libralato S, Raicevich S, Granzotto A, Pastres R, Giovanardi O (2003) Mechanical clam dredging in Venice lagoon: ecosystem effects evaluated with trophic mass-balance model. Marine Biology, 143: 393–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rochet M-J, Trenkel VM (2003) Which community indicators can measure the impact of fishing? A review and proposals. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 60: 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Roux J-P, Shannon LJ (2004) Ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the northern Benguela: the Namibian experience. In. Shannon L, Cochrane KL, Pillar SC (Eds.), Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries in the Southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science, 26: 79–94.Google Scholar
  129. Sánchez F, Olaso I (2004) Effects of fisheries on the Cantabrian Sea shelf ecosystem. Ecological Modelling, 172(2–4): 151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Savenkoff C, Vézina AF, Bundy A (2001) Inverse analysis of the structure and dynamics of the whole ecosystem in the Newfoundland-Labrador shelf. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2354: viii+56p.Google Scholar
  131. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413, 591–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schwartzlose RA, Alheit J, Bakun A, Baumgartner TR, Cloete R, Crawford RJM, Fletcher WJ, Green-Ruiz Y, Hagen E, Kawasaki T, Lluch-Belda D, Lluch-Cota SE, MacCall AD, Matsuura Y, Nevarez-Martinez MO, Parrish RH, Roy C, Serra R, Shust KV, Ward MN, Zuzunaga JZ (1999) Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. South African Journal of Marine Science, 21: 289–347.Google Scholar
  133. Shannon LJ (2001) Trophic models of the Benguela upwelling system: towards an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. PhD Thesis, University of Cape Town. 319 pp. + appendices pages i–xxxv.Google Scholar
  134. Shannon LJ (2002) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries: Report on southern Benguela simulations. In. Pitcher T, Cochrane K (Eds.), The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2): 118–126.Google Scholar
  135. Shannon LJ. Tropic structure and functioning of the southern Benguela ecosystem in the period 2000–2004. African Journal of Marine Science, in prep .Google Scholar
  136. Shannon LJ, Jarre-Teichmann A (1999a) A model of the trophic flows in the northern Benguela upwelling system during the 1980s. South African Journal of Marine Science, 21: 349–366.Google Scholar
  137. Shannon LJ, Jarre-Teichmann A (1999b) Comparing models of trophic flows in the northern and southern Benguela upwelling systems during the 1980s. p. 527–541 in Ecosystem approaches for fisheries management. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-99-01, Fairbanks. 756 pp.Google Scholar
  138. Shannon LJ, Cury P (2003) Indicators quantifying small pelagic fish interactions: application using a trophic model of the southern Benguela ecosystem. Ecological Indicators, 3: 305–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Shannon LJ, Cury P, Jarre A (2000) Modelling effects of fishing in the Southern Benguela ecosystem. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 720–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Shannon LJ, Field JC, Moloney C (2004a) Simulating anchovy-sardine regime shifts in the southern Benguela ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 172(2–4): 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Shannon LJ, Christensen V, Walters C (2004b) Modelling stock dynamics in the Southern Benguella ecosystem for the period 1978–2002. African Journal of Marine Science, 26: 179–196.Google Scholar
  142. Shannon L J, Moloney C, Jarre-Teichmann A, Field JG (2003) Trophic flows in the southern Benguela during the 1980s and 1990s. Journal of Marine Systems, 39: 83–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shannon LJ, Coll M, Neira S, Cury PM, Roux J-P. The role of small pelagic fish in the ecosystem. In Checkley DM, Roy C, Alheit J, Oozeki Y (Eds.), Climate Change and Small Pelagic Fish, in press .Google Scholar
  144. Shannon LJ, Moloney CL, Cury P, Van der Lingen C, Crawford RJM, Cochrane KL (2007) Ecosystem modeling approaches for South African fisheries management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2006. Fourth World Fisheries Congress May 2004, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 587–607, in press .Google Scholar
  145. Shannon LJ, Cury PM, Nel D, van der Lingen CD, Leslie RW, Brouwer SL, Cockcroft AC, Hutchings L (2006) How can science contribute to an ecosystem approach to pelagic, demersal and rock lobster fisheries in South Africa? African Journal of Marine Science 28(1): 115–157.Google Scholar
  146. Shin Y-J, Shannon LJ, Cury P (2004) Simulations of fishing effects on the Southern Benguela fish community using an individual-based model. Learning from a comparison with Ecosim. In. Shannon LJ, Cochrane KL, Pillar SC (Eds.), An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the Southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science, 26: 95–114.Google Scholar
  147. Sinclair M, Valdimarsson G (Eds.), (2003) Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, Wallingford: CAB International. 426p.Google Scholar
  148. Sinclair M, Arnason R, Csirke J, Karnicki Z, Sigurjohnsson J, Rune Skjoldal H, Valdimarsson G (2002) Responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem. Fisheries Research 58: 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Salomon AK, Waller NP, McIlhagga C, Yung RL, Walters C (2002) Modeling the trophic effects of marine protected area zoning policies: a case study. Aquatic Ecology, 36(1): 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Starfield AM, Shelton PA, Field JG, Crawford RJM, Armstrong MJ (1988) Note on a modelling schema for renewable resource problems. South African Journal of Marine Science, 7: 299–303.Google Scholar
  151. Stergiou KI, Karpouzi V (2002) Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 11: 217–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stokes TK (1992) An overview of the North Sea multispecies modelling work in ICES. In. Payne AIL, Brink KH, Mann KH, Hilborn R (Eds.), Benguela Trophic Functioning. South African Journal of Marine Science, 12: 1051–1060.Google Scholar
  153. Ulanowicz RE (1986) Growth and development: ecosystem phenomenology. Springer Verlag, New York. 203 pp.Google Scholar
  154. Ulanowicz RE (1993) Inventing the ecoscope. In Christensen V, Pauly D (Eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26: 9–10.Google Scholar
  155. Ulanowicz R E, Puccia CJ (1990) Mixed trophic impacts in ecosystems. Coenoses, 5: 7–16.Google Scholar
  156. Van der Lingen CD (1999) The feeding ecology of, and carbon and nitrogen budgets for, sardine sardinops sagax in the southern benguela upwelling ecosystem. PhD. Thesis, University of Cape Town. 202 pp.Google Scholar
  157. Venter GE (1988) Occurrence of jellyfish on the west coast of Soyth West Africa/Namibia. In MacDonald IAW, Crawford RJM (Eds.), Long term data series relating to southern Africa’s renewable natural resources. Report of South Africa’s National Scientific Programmes, 157: 56–61.Google Scholar
  158. Walters CJ, Martell S (2004). Harvest management for aquatic ecosystems. Princeton University Press. 420 pp.Google Scholar
  159. Walters C, Christensen V, Pauly D (1997) Structuring dynamic models of exploited ecosystems from trophic mass-balance assessments. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 7: 139–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Walters C, Pauly D, Christensen V (1999) Ecospace: predictions of mesoscale spatial patterns in trophic relationships of exploited ecosystems, with emphasis on the impacts of marine protected areas. Ecosystems, 2: 539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Walters C, Pauly D, Christensen V, Kitchell JF (2000) Representing density dependent consequences of life history strategies in aquatic ecosystems: Ecosim II. Ecosystems, 3: 70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Walters CJ, Christensen V, Martell S, Kitchell JF (2005) Single-species versus ecosystem harvest management: ecosystem structure erosion under myopic management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 558–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Watermeyer K (2007) Reconstructing the Benguela ecosystem for a time before man's intervention. Masters Thesis. Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, South Africa. 161p.Google Scholar
  164. Watermeyer K, Shannon LJ, Griffiths CL (2008) Changes in the trophic structure of the southern Benguela before and after the onset of industrial fishing. African Journal of Marine Science, 30(2): In press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Watters G M, Olson RJ, Francis RC, Fiedler PC, Polovina JJ, Reilly SB, Aydin KY, Boogs CH, Essington TE, Walters CJ, Kitchell JF (2003) Physical forcing and the dynamics of the pelagic ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific: simulations with Enso-scale and global-warming climate drivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 60: 1161–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Whipple SJ, Link JS, Garrison LP, Fogarty MJ (2000) Models of predation and fishing mortality in aquatic ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries, 1: 22–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wolff M (1994) A trophic model for Tongoy Bay – a system exposed to suspended scallop culture (Northern Chile). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 182: 149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wulff F, Field JG, Mann KH (1989) Network analysis in marine ecology. Methods and applications. Coastal and Estuarine Studies. Vol. 32. Springer-Verlag, New York. 134 pp.Google Scholar
  169. Zwanenburg KC (2000) The effects of fishing on demersal fish communities of the Scotian Shelf. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 503–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Coll
    • 1
  • Alida Bundy
  • Lynne J. Shannon
  1. 1.Institute of Marine Science (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49Spain

Personalised recommendations