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Bias, Confounding, and Effect Modification

  • Stephen P. Glasser

Abstract

Bias, jaconfounding, and random variation/chance are the reasons for a non-causal association between an exposure and outcome. This chapter will define and discuss these concepts so that they may be appropriately considered whenever one is interpreting the data from a study.

Keywords

Gross Domestic Product Confounding Variable Effect Modification Moderate Alcohol Consumption Coffee Drinking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen P. Glasser
    • 1
  1. 1.Univesity of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AlabamaBirmingham

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