The Discrete Reaction Field approach for calculating solvent effects

  • Piet Th. Van DuijnenEmail author
  • Marcel Swart
  • Lasse Jensen
Part of the Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics book series (COCH, volume 6)


We present here the discrete reaction field (DRF) approach, which is an accurate and efficient model for studying solvent effects on spectra, chemical reactions, solute properties, etc. The DRF approach uses a polarizable force field, which is (apart from the short-range repulsion) based entirely on second-order perturbation theory, and therefore ensures the correct analytical form of model potentials. The individual interaction components are modeled independently from each other, in a rigorous and straightforward way. The required force field parameters result as much as possible from quantum-chemical calculations and on monomer properties, thereby avoiding undesired fitting of these parameters to empirical data.

Because the physical description is correct and consistent, the method allows for arbitrary division of a system into different subsystems, which may be described either on the quantum-mechanical (QM) or the molecular mechanics (MM) level, without significant loss of accuracy. This allows for performing fully MM molecular simulations (Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics), which can subsequently be followed by performing QM/MM calculations on a selected number of representative snapshots from these simulations. These QM/MM calculations then give directly the solvent effects on emission or absorption spectra, molecular properties, organic reactions, etc


Monte Carlo Third Harmonic Generation Atomic Polarizability Force Field Parameter Amsterdam Density Functional 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piet Th. Van Duijnen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcel Swart
    • 2
  • Lasse Jensen
    • 3
  1. 1.Zernike Institute for Advanced MaterialsRijksuniversiteit GroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 BarcelonaSpain and Institut de Química Computacional, Universitat de GironaCampus MontiliviSpain
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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