Electrical Stimulation for Health, Beauty, Fitness, Sports Training and Rehabilitation

A Users Guide
  • Kristin Schaefer Centofanti


With the development of modern electronics, electrical stimulation has become a widely accepted therapeutic tool for muscle rehabilitation and recovery. However the scientific and medical communities have tended to sideline or dismiss the use of electrotherapy for healthy muscles. This chapter covers the various applications and benefits of electrical stimulation on normal healthy individuals for toning, strengthening, body shaping and general fitness. This section also offers practical protocols for both the training of healthy muscles and the recovery or improvement of muscles and tissues that have been damaged or are diseased.


Biphasic body shaping electrode pads electrotherapy frequency intensity motor point motor unit pad layout pulse width pulses per second ramp time TENS waveform 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin Schaefer Centofanti
    • 1
  1. 1.JKC Research PartnershipLondonUK

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