Micropropagation of Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)

  • A. Giovanelli
  • A. De Carlo

The “Mediterranean” or “common” cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) is a tall tree (up to 30 m in height), belonging to the genus Cupressus, Family Cupressaceae. The Genus includes as much as 25 species (Ducrey et al., 1999), largely diffused in the Mediterranean basin, in Asia and in North America. Of them, the Mediterranean cypress is by far the most important and widespread species in the Mediterranean area. It is native to Northern Persia, as well as Syria, Turkey, Cyprus and several Greek islands. However, during the Roman Empire it was introduced into all the Mediterranean countries, where it can now be considered naturalised. The cypress is monoecious, and bears male and female strobili (cones) separately at the end of short branchlets. Depending on the crown branch habit, the species is divided into two varieties, i.e.: - C. sempervirens var. horizontalis, the most common in natural areas, characterised by spreading branches and a broad conical crown; - C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis (= var. fastigiata), the most popular for ornamental use because of its erect branches, parallel to the trunk, which give the tree its typical columnar shape.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Zygotic Embryo Immature Embryo Embryogenic Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahuja, M.R. (2000) Genetic engineering in forest trees: state of the art and future perspectives. In Jain, S.M. & Minocha, S.C. (Eds) Molecular Biology of Woody Plants, Vol. 1. Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, pp. 31-49.Google Scholar
  2. Attree, S.M. & Fowke, L.C. (1991) Micropropagation through somatic embryogenesis in conifers. In: Bajaj, Y.P.S. (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 17. High-tech and micropropagation I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 53-70.Google Scholar
  3. Becwar, M.R., Nagmani, R. & Wann, S.R. (1990) Initiation of embryogenic cultures and somatic embryo development in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Can. J. For. Res. 20, 810-817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boulay, M. (1978) Mulitplication rapide du Sequoia sempervirens en culture in vitro. Annales de Recherche Sylvicole, 1977, 37-67.Google Scholar
  5. Capuana, M. & Giannini, R. (1997) Micropropagation of young and adult plants of cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). J. Horticult. Sci. 72, 453-460.Google Scholar
  6. Capuana, M. & Lambardi, M. (1995) Cutting propagation of common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). New Forests 9, 11-122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. David, A., Laine, E. & David, H. (1995) Somatic embryogenesis in Pinus caribea. In Jain, S.M., Gupta, P.K. & Newton, R.J. (Eds) Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol. 3. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp. 145-181.Google Scholar
  8. Ducrey, M., Brofas, G., Andreoli, C. & Raddi, P. (1999) Genus Cupressus. In Teissier du Cros, E. (Ed.) Cypress - A Pratical Handbook. Studio Leonardo Firenze, pp. 9-26.Google Scholar
  9. Ewald, D. & Suss, R. (1993) A system for repeatable formation of elongating adventitious buds in Norway spruce tissue cultures. Silvae Genet. 42, 169-175.Google Scholar
  10. Fossi, D., Lipucci, Di Paola, M. & Tognoni, F. (1981) Induzione in vitro di gemme ascellari della specie Cupressus sempervirens L. Rivista di Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana 65, 293-299.Google Scholar
  11. Fouret, Y., Arnaud, Y. & Larrieu, C. (1985) Rajeunissement in vitro du Sequoia sempervirens: effect du nombre et de la fréquence des repiquages; recherche de critères précoces de juvénilité. Annales de Recherche Sylvicole, 1984, 111-137.Google Scholar
  12. Giannini, R., Capuana, M. & Giovannelli, A. (1999) Produzione di piante. In Teissier du Cros, E. (Ed.) Il Cipresso - Manuale tecnico. Studio Leonardo Firenze, pp. 44-53.Google Scholar
  13. Giovannelli, A. & Giannini, R. (2000) Reinvigoration of mature chestnut (Castanea sativa) by repetaed gratings and micropropagation. Tree Phys. 20, 1243-1248.Google Scholar
  14. Gupta, P.K. & Durzan, D.J. (1985) Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana). Plant Cell Rep. 4, 177-179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang, L.C., Luis, B.L., Huang, T., Murashige, T., Mahdi, E.F.M. & Van Gundy, R. (1992) Rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens by repeated grafting of shoot tips onto juvenile rootstock in vitro. Plant Physiol. 98, 166-173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambardi, M. (2000) Somatic embryogenesis in cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). In Jain, S.M., Gupta, P.K. & Newton, R.J. (Eds) Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp. 553-567.Google Scholar
  17. Lambardi, M., Sharma, K.K. & Thorpe, T.A. (1993) Optimization of in vitro bud induction and plantlet formation from mature embryos of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol .- Plant 29, 189-199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lambardi, M., Harry, I.S., Menabeni, D. & Thorpe, T.A. (1995) Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in Cupressus sempervirens. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 40, 179-182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lambardi, M., Lachance, D., Seguin, A. & Charest, P.J. (1997) Evaluation of microprojectile mediated DNA delivery and reporter genes for genetic transformation of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). Plant Cell Rep. 18, 198-202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leslie, C.A., Hackett, W.P., Bujazha, D., Hirbod, S. & McGranahan, G.H. (2005) Adventitious rooting and clonal plant production of hybrid walnut (Juglans) rootstock selections. Acta Hort. 705, 325-328.Google Scholar
  21. Moraldi, M., Danti, R. & Di Lonardo, V. (2004). Produzione di piante di cipresso per innesto. In Manuale tecnico - Produzione commerciale di piante di cipresso. CYPMED, (Ed.) Centro Promozione Pubblicità Firenze, pp. 16-20.Google Scholar
  22. Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pozzana, M.C. (1991) Cypress: sign and design, from painting to landscape. In Panconesi, A. (Ed.) Il cipresso. Italian National Research Council (CNR), pp. 29-40.Google Scholar
  24. Quoirin, M. & Lepoivre, I. (1977) Etudes de milieux adaptes aux cultures in vitro de Prunus. Acta Hort. 78, 437-442.Google Scholar
  25. Raddi, P. & Panconesi, A. (1981) Cypress canker disease in Italy: biology, control, possibilities and genetic improvement for resistance. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 11, 340-347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raddi, P., Intini, M., Torraca, G., Romagnoli, A. & Nembi, V. (2004) Produzione di piante di cipresso da moltiplicazione agamica. In Manuale tecnico - Produzione commerciale di piante di cipresso. CYPMED, (Ed.) Centro Promozione Pubblicità Firenze, pp. 5-11.Google Scholar
  27. Sallandrouze, A., Faurobert, M., El Maataoui, M. & Espagnac, H. (1999) Two dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins associated with somatic embryogenesis development in Cupressus sempervirens L. Electrophoresis 20, 1109-1119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schenk, H. & Hildebrandt, A.C. (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can. J. Bot. 50, 199-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spanos, K.A., Pierre, A. & Woodward, S. (1997) Micropropagation of Cupressus sempervirens L. and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. MURR.) PAR. Silvae Genet. 46, 291-295.Google Scholar
  30. Teissier du Cros, E. (1999) Introduction. In Teissier du Cros, E. (Ed.) Cypress - A Pratical Handbook. Studio Leonardo Firenze, pp. 7-9.Google Scholar
  31. Teissier du Cros, E., Ferrandes, P., Hallard, F., Ducatillon, C. & Andreoli, C. (1991) Cypress genetic improvement in France: aims and results. In Panconesi, A. (Ed.) Il cipresso. Italian National Research Council (CNR), pp. 121-127.Google Scholar
  32. von Arnold, S. & Eriksson, T. (1981) In vitro studies of adventitious shoot formation in Pinus contorta. Can. J. Bot. 59, 870-874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xenopoulos, S. (1990) Screening for resistance to cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) in several Greek provenances of Cupressus sempervirens. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 20, 140-147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Giovanelli
    • 1
  • A. De Carlo
    • 2
  1. 1.Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)IVALSA/Istituto per la Valorizzazione del Legno e delle Specie ArboreeItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)IGV/Istituto di Genetica Vegetale, Sezione FirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations