Advertisement

Evaluation of Career Guidance Programs

  • Susan C. Whiston
  • Ilene M. Buck

The International Handbook of Career Guidance is intended to provide practitioners and researchers information concerning how to both implement and evaluate career guidance internationally. Dennehy (2003) argued that career guidance must be lifelong, accessible, and meaningful for all individuals. This can be achieved through the national and international levels of collaboration of policy-makers, researchers, trainers, practitioners and other stakeholders to guarantee the integration and evaluation of career guidance services and to ensure that the services are comprehensive and quality driven. This chapter will focus on the evaluation of career guidance programs by first examining the current research related to the effects of career guidance programs or interventions with a focus on general trends on the effectiveness of career guidance. Consistent with other chapters in this volume, the definition of career guidance is quite broad and will include various interventions or programs that are designed to facilitate career and, to some extent, academic and personal development. Second, the authors will discuss how current practices regarding the effectiveness of career guidance programs can be translated into evaluating various programs in diverse settings. This discussion will not provide a list of approved evaluation tools, but will focus on the complexities of thoroughly evaluating career guidance programs with an appreciation of cultural considerations. We will conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research and evaluative studies and provide suggestions on how career counsellors or guidance specialists can work with researchers or scholars to enhance the overall quality of the evaluation of career guidance programs.

Keywords

Career Guidance Career Counselling Average Effect Size Guidance Program Vocational Guidance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benkofske, M., & Heppner, C. C. (1999). Program evaluation. In P. P. Heppner, D. M. Kivlighan, & B. E. Wampold (Eds.), Research design in counseling (pp. 488–513). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  2. Betz, N. E., Klein, K. L., & Taylor, K. M. (1996). Evaluation of a sort form of the career decision-making self-efficacy scale. Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bimrose, J., Barnes, S. A., Hughes, D., & Orton, M. (2004). What is effective guidance? Evidence from longitudinal case studies in England. Retrieved June 6, 2006 from Warwick Institute for Employment Research http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/ier/publications/bydate/2004.
  4. Bimrose, J., Barnes, S., & Hughes, D. (2005). Effective guidance one year on: Evidence from longitudinal case studies in England. Retrieved April 28, 2006 from Warwick Institute for Employment Research http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/ier/publications/bydate/egreportoct05.pdf
  5. Blueprint for Life. (2006). Blueprint for life/work designs. Retrieved June 6, 2006 from Blueprint for Life/Work Designs http://206.191.51.163/blueprint/home.cfm.
  6. Brown, S. D., & Ryan Krane, N. E. (2000). Four (or five) sessions and a cloud of dust: Old assumptions and new observations about career counseling. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (3rd ed., pp. 740–766). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Bysshe, S., Hughes, D., & Bowes, L. (2002). The economic benefits of career guidance: A review of current evidence. CeGS Occasional Paper, Derby: Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.Google Scholar
  8. Dennehy, J. (2003, October). Closing remarks. Career guidance & public policy: Bridging the gap Conference. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Franklin, R. D. (1997). Design and analysis of single-case research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Fretz, B. R. (1981). Evaluating the effectiveness of career interventions [Monograph]. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S. H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 510–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gati, I., Gadassi, R., & Shemesh, N. (2006). The predictive validity of a computer-assisted career decision-making system: A six-year follow-up. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gelso, C. J. (1979). Research in counseling: Methodological and professional issues. The Counseling Psychologist, 8, 7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guichard, J. (2003). Career counselling for human development: An international perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 306–321.Google Scholar
  15. Guichard, J., & Lenz, J. (2005). Career theory from an international perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 17–28.Google Scholar
  16. Hartung, P. J. (2005). Internationalizing career counseling: Emptying our cups and learning from each other. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 12–16.Google Scholar
  17. Heppner, P. P., Kivlighan, D. M., & Wampold, B. E. (1999). Research design in counseling (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, C. E., & Lambert, M. J. (2003). Methodological issues in studying psychotherapy processes and outcomes. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (5th ed., pp. 84–135). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1994). The program evaluation (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Kidd, J. M., & Killeen, J. (1992). Are the effects of guidance worth having? Changes in practice and outcome. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65, 219–234.Google Scholar
  21. Killeen, J., & White, M. (2000). The impact of careers guidance on adult employed people. DfEE Research Report, Sheffield, UK: Department for Education and Employment.Google Scholar
  22. Lalande, V., Hiebert, B., Bezanson, L., Magnusson, K., Baudoin, R., Borgen, B., Goyer, L., Michaud, G., Renald, C., & Turcotte, M (2005, September). Evidence based practice in career development services for Canadians. Paper presented at the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance Conference, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
  23. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Love, A., & Russon, C. (2004). Evaluation standards in an international context. In C. Russon & G. Russon (Eds.), International perspectives on evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  25. Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2003). An assertiveness training program for indecisive students attending an Italian university. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 322–334.Google Scholar
  26. Nota, L., Soresi, S., Solberg, S. H., & Ferrari, L. (2005). Promoting vocational development: Methods of intervention and techniques used in the Italian context. International Journal for Educational and vocational Guidance, 5, 271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ogles, B. M., Lambert, M. J., & Fields, S. A. (2002). Essentials of outcome assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Oliver, L. W., & Spokane, A. R. (1988). Career-intervention outcome: What contributes to client gain? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osipow, S. H., Carney, C. G., Winer, J. L., Yanico, B., & Koschler, M. (1987). Career Decision Scale (Rev. ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  30. Portnoi, L., Guichard, J., & Lallemand, N. (2004). The effect of career inventions designed to increase self-knowledge on the self-concepts of adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 484–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reardon, R. (1996). A program and cost analysis of a self-directed career decision-making program in a university career center. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 280–285.Google Scholar
  32. Rees, T., Bartlett, W., & Watts, A. G. (1999). The marketisation of guidance services in Germany, France, and Britain. Journal of Education and Work, 12, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Spokane, A. R. (1991). Career interventions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Sverko, B., Akik, N., Baborvic, T., Brcina, A., & Sverko, I. (2002). Validity of e-advice: The evaluation of an Internet-based system for career planning. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 2, 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thompson, B., & Snyder, P. A. (1998). Statistical significance and reliability analyses in recent Journal of Counseling & Development research articles. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76, 436–441.Google Scholar
  37. Watts, A. G. (2005). Career guidance policy: An international review. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 66–76.Google Scholar
  38. Watts, A. G., & Sultana, R. G. (2004). Career guidance in 37 countries: Contrast and common themes. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 4, 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Whiston, S. C. (2001). Selecting career outcome assessments: An organizational scheme. Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Whiston, S. C. (2002). Application of the Principles: Career counseling and interventions. The Counseling Psychologist, 30, 218–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Whiston, S. C., & Brecheisen, B. (2002). Evaluating the effectiveness of adult career development programs. In S. G. Niles (Ed.), Adult career development: Concepts, issues, and practices (3rd ed., pp. 367–384). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  42. Whiston, S. C., & Oliver, L. (2005). Career counseling process and outcome. In W. B. Walsh & M. Savickas (Eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 155–194). Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Whiston, S. C., Sexton, T. L., & Lasoff, D. L. (1998). Career intervention outcome: A replication and extension. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whiston, S. C., Brecheisen, B. K., & Stephens, J. (2003). Does treatment modality affect career counseling effectiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 390–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whiston, S. C., Eder, K., Tai, W. L., & Rahardja, D. (2005, June). Research supporting school counseling: Comprehensive findings. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American School Counselor Association, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  46. Yates, B. T. (1996). Analyzing costs, procedures, processes, and outcomes in human services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case studies research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan C. Whiston
    • 1
  • Ilene M. Buck
    • 1
  1. 1.Indiana UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations