Advertisement

Career Guidance with Immigrants

  • Charles P. Chen

As a human phenomenon influenced by complex political, economic, and social factors, immigration has become an increasingly important issue to many countries in an era of globalisation (Polachek, Chiswick, & Rapoport, 2006). One of the main challenges that accompany the growing trend of immigration lies with the effective utilisation of human resources in this process. The ultimate goal for this human resource management is a reciprocal and beneficial interaction between the two parties involved in this phenomenon, that is, the immigrants and the host country. A better adjustment to the host country provides a more amiable experience that facilitates the wellness of the immigrants who aim to become responsible, healthy, and productive citizens in the new social and societal environment. The better this adjustment, the more contributions immigrants will make to their host country society, and the more benefit the host country will receive through the process of immigration.

Enhancing immigrants’ adjustment in the host country requires some comprehensive consideration that encompasses two general aspects, namely, personal/ social and vocational adjustment. While the central focus of this chapter is on the vocational aspect of immigrants’ adjustment, it keeps in mind that the vocational experience always intertwines with the personal/social experience, making the worklife and vocational adjustment an enriching yet very often challenging experience for this population.

Keywords

Host Country Career Development Recent Immigrant Host Society Career Guidance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan, H. T., Larsen, J. A., Bryan, K., & Smith, P. A. (2004). The social reproduction of institutional racism: Internationally recruited nurses’ experiences of the British health services. Diversity in Health and Social Care, 1(2), 117.Google Scholar
  2. Amundson, N. E. (2003). Active engagement: Enhancing the career counselling process (2nd ed.). Richmond, Canada: Ergon Communications.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (2005). Introduction to culture-infused counselling. In N. Arthur & S. Collins (Eds.), Culture-infused counselling: Celebrating the Canadian mosaic (pp. 3–40). Calgary, Canada: Counselling Concepts.Google Scholar
  4. Arthur, N., & Stewart, J. (2001). Multicultural counselling in the new millennium: Introduction to the special theme issue. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 35(1), 3–14.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 269–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauder, H. (2003). “Brain abuse” or the devaluation of immigrant labour in Canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Betz, N. E. (1993). Toward the integration of multicultural and career psychology. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 53–55.Google Scholar
  10. Betz, N. E., & Corning, A. F. (1993). The inseparability of “career” and “personal” counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 53–55.Google Scholar
  11. Bloch, D. P., & Richmond, L. J. (1998). Soul work: Finding the work you love, loving the work you have. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
  12. Bowman, S. L. (2003). Career intervention strategies for ethnic minorities. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 14–25.Google Scholar
  13. Boyd, M., & Thomas, D. (2002). Skilled immigrant labour: Country of origin and the occupational locations of male engineers. Canadian Studies in Population, 29(1), 71–99.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, D. (2002). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 48–56.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, C. P. (1997). Perspectivity, projectivity, and perseverance: The 3P’s in career counselling. Guidance & Counselling, 13(1), 6–9.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, C. P. (1999). Human agency in context: Toward an ecological frame of career counselling. Guidance & Counselling, 14(3), 3–10.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, C. P. (2001). Career counselling as life career integration. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 53(4), 523–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, C. P. (2002). Integrating action theory and human agency in career development. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 36(2), 121–135.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, C. P. (2004). Positive compromise: A new perspective for career psychology. Australian Journal of Career Development, 13(2), 17–28.Google Scholar
  20. Chen, C. P. (2006a). Strengthening career human agency. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(2), 131–138.Google Scholar
  21. Chen, C. P. (2006b). Career endeavour: Pursuing a cross-cultural life transition. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  22. Chung, C. C., & Bernak, B. (2002). The relationship of culture and empathy in cross-cultural counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 154–159.Google Scholar
  23. Cochran, L. (1990). The sense of vocation: A study of career and life development. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cochran, L. (1994). What is a career problem? The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 204–215.Google Scholar
  25. Cochran, L. (1997). Career counseling: A narrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Cochran, L., & Laub, J. (1994). Becoming an agent: Patterns and dynamics for shaping your life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  27. Conference Board of Canada. (2001). Brain gain: The economic benefits of recognised learning and learning credentials in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Author.Google Scholar
  28. Conference Board of Canada. (2004). The voices of visible minorities–Speaking out on breaking down barriers. Ottawa, Canada: Author.Google Scholar
  29. Constant, A., & Zimmermann, K. F. (2006). The making of entrepreneurs in Germany: Are native men and immigrants alike? Small Business Economics, 26(3), 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flores, L.Y., & Heppner, M. J. (2002). Multicultural career counseling: Ten essentials for training. Journal of Career Development, 28, 181–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fouad, N. A. (2003). Cross-cultural vocational assessment. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 4–13.Google Scholar
  32. Gottfredson, L. S. (2002). Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription, compromise, and self-creation. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 85–148). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Hansen, L. S. (1997). Integrative life planning: Critical tasks for career development and changing life patterns. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  34. Hansen, L.S. (2001). Integrating work, family and community through holistic life planning. The Career Development Quarterly, 40, 261–274.Google Scholar
  35. Herzog-Punzenberger, B. (2003). Ethnic segmentation in school and labor market–40 year legacy of Austrian guestworker policy. International Migration Review, 37(4), 1120–1144.Google Scholar
  36. InterQuest Consulting. (2006). Consultations on the settlement and language training services needs of newcomers - In support of the Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement. Ottawa, Canada: Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration.Google Scholar
  37. Irving, B. A., & Malik, B. (Eds.). (2005). Critical reflections on career education and guidance: Promoting social justice within a global economy. New York: Routledge/Falmer.Google Scholar
  38. Krumboltz, J. D. (1993). Integrating career and personal counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 143–148.Google Scholar
  39. Lee, G., & Westwood, M. J. (1996). Cross-cultural adjustment issues faced by immigrant professionals. Journal of Employment Counseling, 33, 29–42.Google Scholar
  40. Lent, R.W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lent, R.W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2002). Social cognitive career theory. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 255–311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Lewin, F. (2001). Identity crisis and integration: The divergent attitudes of Iranian immigrant men and women towards integration into Swedish society. International Migration, 39(3), 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lindley, L. D. (2006). The paradox of self-efficacy: Research with diverse populations. Journal of Career Assessment, 14, 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. London, M. (1983). Toward a theory of career motivation. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 620–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mak, A., Westwood, M., & Ishiyama, I. F. (1994). Developing role-based social competencies for career search and development and intercultural training for Chinese immigrants. Journal of Career Development, 20, 171–187.Google Scholar
  46. Man, G. (2004). Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women’s Studies International Forum, 27(2), 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mighty, E. J. (1997). Triple jeopardy: Immigrant women of color in the labor force. In P. Prasad (Ed.), Managing the organizational melting pot: Dilemmas of workplace diversity (pp. 312–339). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Miller-Tiedeman, A. L. (1997). The Lifecareer process theory: A healthier choice. In D. P. Block & L. J. Richmond (Eds.), Connection between spirit and work in career development (pp. 87–114). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
  49. Miller-Tiedeman, A. L. (1999). Learning, practicing, and living the new careering. Philadelphia, PA: Accelerated Development.Google Scholar
  50. Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1996). Krumboltz’s learning theory of career choice and counseling. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 233–280). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  51. Ngo, H. V., & Este, D. (2006). Professional re-entry for foreign-trained immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 7(1), 27–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Niles, S. G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2005). Career development interventions in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  53. Omeri, A., & Atkins, K. (2002). Lived experiences of immigrant nurses in New South Wales, Australia: Searching for meaning. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39(5), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pedersen, P. (1995). The culture-bound counsellor as an unintentional racist. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 29, 197–205.Google Scholar
  55. Pedersen, P. (2001). Multiculturalism and the paradigm shift in counselling: Controversies and alternative futures. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 35(1), 15–25.Google Scholar
  56. Polachek, S. W, Chiswick, C., & Rapoport, H. (Eds.). (2006). The economics of immigration and social diversity. Amsterdam/San Diego, CA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  57. Purkiss, S. L., Perrewe, P. L., Gillespie T. L., Mayes B. T., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). Implicit sources of bias in employment interview judgments and decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101(2), 152–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Remennick, L. (2003). Career continuity among immigrant professionals: Russian engineers in Israel. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 29(4), 701–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Remennick, L. (2004). Work relations between immigrants and old-timers in an Israeli organization: Social interactions and inter-group attitudes. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 45(1–2), 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Remennick, L., & Shakhar, G. (2003). You never stop being a doctor: The stories of Russian immigrant physicians who converted to physiotherapy. Health, 7(1), 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rickwood, R. R., Roberts, J., Batten, S., Marshall, A., & Massie, K. (2004). Empowering high-risk clients to attain a better quality of life: A career resiliency framework. Journal of Employment Counseling, 41, 98–104.Google Scholar
  62. Savickas, M. L., Van Esbroeck, R., & Herr, E. L. (2005). The internationalization of educational and vocational guidance. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 77–85.Google Scholar
  63. Statistics Canada. (1999). Recent immigrants in the labour force. Canadian social trends. Ottawa, Canada: Ministry of Industry.Google Scholar
  64. Statistics Canada. (2003). Ethnic diversity survey: Portrait of a multicultural society. Retrieved November 30, 2003 from http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89–593-XIE/free.htm
  65. Statistics Canada. (2005a). Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada–A portrait of early settlement experiences. Ottawa, Canada: Ministry of Industry.Google Scholar
  66. Statistics Canada. (2005b). Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada–Progress and challenges of new immigrants in the workforce 2003. Ottawa, Canada: Ministry of Industry.Google Scholar
  67. Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  68. Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197–261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  69. Vontress, C. L. (2001). Cross-cultural counseling in the 21st century. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 23, 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang, T. (2002). Cultural dissonance and adaptation: A study of Chinese immigrant teachers coping with cultural differences in Toronto schools (Ontario). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(12), 4184. (UMI No. 765122401.Google Scholar
  71. Westwood, M. J., & Ishiyama, F. I. (1991). Challenges in counseling immigrant clients: Understanding intercultural barriers to career adjustment. Journal of Employment Counseling, 28(4), 130–143.Google Scholar
  72. Westwood, M. J., Mak, A., Barker, M., & Ishiyama, I. F. (2000). Group procedures and applications for developing sociocultural competencies among immigrants. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22, 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Winkleman, M. (1994). Cultural shock and adaptation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 121–136.Google Scholar
  74. Yost, A. D., & Lucas, M. S. (2002). Adjustment issues affecting employment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Journal of Employment Counseling, 39, 153–170.Google Scholar
  75. Young, R. A., Valach, L., & Collin, A. (1996). A contextual explanation of career. In D. Brown, & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 477–512). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  76. Young, R. A., Valach, L., & Collin, A. (2002). A contextualist explanation of career. In D. Brown (Ed.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 206–252). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  77. Zhu, H. (2005). Capital transformation and immigrant integration: Chinese independent immigrants’ language and social practices in Canada. Dissertation Abstracts International (A: The Humanities and Social Sciences), 66(06), 2075. (UMI No. 932367271.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles P. Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations