A Review of Resurgence and Replacement Causing Pest Outbreaks in IPM

Part of the Integrated Management of Plants Pests and Diseases book series (IMPD, volume 1)


Insect and mite pest resurgence occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment destroys the pest population and kills, repels, irritates or otherwise deters the natural enemies of the pest. The residual activity of the insecticide then expires and the pest population is able to increase more rapidly and to a higher abundance when natural enemies are absent or in low abundance. Replacement of a primary pest with a secondary pest occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment controls the primary pest and also destroys natural enemies of an injurious insect or mite that was regulated below an economic injury level by the natural enemies, thus, elevating the secondary pest to primary pest status. Disruption of natural controls is not always the cause of resurgence or replacement events. A dose-response phenomenon called hormesis can occur in pest populations exposed to sublethal doses of pesticides. This can cause an increase in fecundity (physiological hormoligosis) or oviposition behaviour (behavioural hormoligosis of the pest leading to a significant increase in its abundance. Selective insecticides and acaricides coupled with natural enemies and host plant resistance have become the alternative methods more commonly used by growers that encounter these problems. The purpose of this chapter is to review pesticide-induced resurgence and replacement in modern cropping systems and methods for measuring and resolving these problems.


Natural Enemy Spider Mite Predatory Mite Pest Population Green Peach Aphid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, W. S. (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18, 265-267.Google Scholar
  2. Abdullah, N. M. M., Singh, J., & Sohal, B. S. (2006). Behavioral hormoligsis in oviposition preferences of Bemisia tabaci on cotton. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 84, 10-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albers, C. E. (2002). Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of four fungicides used to control Uncinula necator on the spider mite predator Metaseiulus occidentalis. PhD dissertation. Horticulture and Crop Science Department, California Polytechnic State University, 42 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Alonso, R. J. C. (2005). Contributions toward the integrated pest management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), on collards in Virginia. PhD dissertation. Entomology Department., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blackburg, VA, USA, 93 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bagwell, R. D. (2005). Louisiana cotton insect report. Louisiana State Univ. AgCenter Report, 10, 2.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, H. J., & Su, P. P. (1979). Effect of sublethal dosages of carbofuran and carbaryl on fecundity and longevity of female western corn rootworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72, 873-876.Google Scholar
  7. Barbosa, P., & Schultz, J. C. (1987). Insect outbreaks. Academic Press. NY. 578 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Barbosa, P. (1997). Conservation biological control. Academic Press. NY 396 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, R. E. (1998). Insects and Mites of Economic Importance in the Northwestern. 2nd Ed. Oregon State University Book Stores, Inc., Corvalis, OR, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Braun, A. R., Bellotti, A. C., Guerrero, J. M. & Wilson, L. T. (1989). Effect of predator exclusion on cassava infested with tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Environmental Entomology, 18, 711-714.Google Scholar
  11. Breth, D., & Nyrop, J. P. (1998). A Guide for Integrated Mite Control in Apples in the Northeast. Cornell University IPM Publication. No. 215.Google Scholar
  12. Calabrese, E. J., & Baldwin, L. A. (2003). Hormesis: the dose-response revolution. Annual Reviews of Pharmocology and Toxicology, 43, 175-197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calabrese, E. J., Baldwin, L. A., & Holland C. D. (1999). Hormesis: a highly generalizable and reproducible phenomenon with important implications for risk assessment. Risk Analysis, 19, 261-281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carroll, D. P., & Hoyt, S. C. (1984). Natural enemies and their effects on apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeGeer (Homoptera: Aphididae), colonies on young apple trees in central Washington. Environmental Entomology, 13, 469-481.Google Scholar
  15. Chelliah, S., Fabellar., L. T., & Heinrichs, E. A. (1980). Effect of sub-lethal doses of three insecticidesd on the reproductive rates of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, on rice. Environmental Entomology, 9, 778-780.Google Scholar
  16. Chelliah, S., & Heinrichs, E. A. (1980). Factors affecting insecticide-induced resurgence of the brown planthopper Nilparvata lugens, on rice. Environmental Entomology, 9, 773-777.Google Scholar
  17. Croft, B. A. (1990). Arthropod Biological Control Agents and Pesticides. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  18. Cuthbertson, A. G. S., Bell, A. C., & Murchie, A. K. (2003). Impact of the predatory mite Anystis baccarum (Prostigmata: Anystidae) on apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) populations in Northern Ireland Bramley orchards. Annals of Applied Biology, 142, 107-114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dempster, J. P. (1983). The natural control of populations of butterflies and moths. Biological Reviews, 58, 461-481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Denmark, H. A. (2000). Cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Entomology Circular 25, 177 and 306. Available online: http://creatures.ifas.ufl.eduGoogle Scholar
  21. Dittrich, V., Streibert, P., & Bathe, P. A. (1974). An old case reopened: mite stimulation by insecticide residues. Environmental Entomology, 3, 534-540.Google Scholar
  22. Dufour, R. (2001). Biointensive integrated pest management. National Centre Appropriate Technology. University of Arkansas. Available online: .Google Scholar
  23. Dutcher, J. D. (1983). Carbaryl and aphid resurgence in pecan orchards. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 18, 492-495.Google Scholar
  24. Dutcher, J. D. (1993). Recent examples of conservation of arthropod natural enemies in agriculture. In Lumsden, R. D., & Vaughan, J. L. (Eds). Pest management: biologically based technologies. American Chemical Society Conference Proceedings Series, 18, 101-108.Google Scholar
  25. Dutcher, J. D. (2004). Habitiat manipulation for enhancement of aphidophagous insects in pecan orchards. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science, 30, 13-22.Google Scholar
  26. Dutcher, J. D. (2007). Impact of predatory mite releases on the abundance of pecan leaf scorch mite. Journal of Entomological Sciences, 42 (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Dutcher, J. D., & Heyerdahl, R. (1988). Parasitic hymenoptera of four species of lepidopteran leafminers of pecan. In: Gupta, V. K. (Ed.). Advances in Parasitic Hymernoptera. E. J. Brill New York, New York, USA, 445-458.Google Scholar
  28. Dutcher, J. D., Worley, R. E., Daniell, J. W., Moss, R. B., & Harrison, K. F. (1984). Impact of six insecticide-based arthropod pest management strategies on pecan yield, quality, and return bloom under four irrigation/soil-fertility regimes. Environmental Entomology, 13, 1644-1653.Google Scholar
  29. Ferguson, K. I., & Stiling, P. (1996). Non-additive effects of multiple natural enemies on aphid populations. Oecologia, 108, 375-379.Google Scholar
  30. Gerson, U., & Cohen, E. (1989). Resurgence of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) induced by synthetic pyrethroids. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 6, 29-46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., Godfret, L. D., Chaney, W. E., & Bentley, W. J. (2005). Various novel insecticides are less toxic to humans, more specific to key pests. California Agriculture, 59, 29-34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hajek, A. E. (2004). Natural enemies: an introduction to biological control. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hardin, M. R., Benrey, B., Coli, M., Lamp, W. O., Roderick, G. K., & Barbosa, P. (1995). Arthropod pest resurgence: an overview of potential mechanisms. Crop Protection, 14, 3-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hardman, J. M., Herbert, H. J., Sanford, K. H, & Hamilton, D. (1985). Effects of populations of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi, on the apple variety Red Delicious in Nova Scotia. Canadian Entomologist, 117, 1257-1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Henderson, C. F., & Tilton, E. W. (1955). Tests with acaricides against wheat mites. Journal of Economic Entomology, 48, 157-161.Google Scholar
  36. Heyerdahl, R., & Dutcher, J. D. (1985). Management of the pecan serpentine leafminer. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78, 1121-1124.Google Scholar
  37. Holland, J. M., Chapman, R. B., & Penman, D. R. (1994). Effects of fluvalinate on two-spotted spider mite dispersal, fecundity and feeding. Entomologia Experimenta Applicata, 71, 145-153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holt, K. M., Opit, G. P., Nechols, J. R. & Margolies, D. C. (2006). Testing for non-target effects of spinosad twospotted spider mite and their predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, under greenhouse conditions. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 38, 141-149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Horton, D., Bellinger, B., Pettis, G. V., Brannen, P. M., & Mitchum, W. E.. (2005). Pest management strategic plan for eastern peaches. USDA-ARS/CSREES, 75 pp. Available online: www.ipmcenters.orgGoogle Scholar
  40. Howitt, A. J. (1993). Common Tree Fruit Pests. Michigan State University Extension Service. East Lansing, MI, USAGoogle Scholar
  41. Hudson, W. G. & Pettis, G. V. (2005). Pest management strategic plan for pecan in the southeastern United States. USDA-ARS/CSREES, 39 pp. Available online: www.ipmcenters.orgGoogle Scholar
  42. Hueck, H. J. (1953). The Population Dynamics of the Fruit Tree Red Spider. Proeschr. Rijksuniv., Leiden, The Netherlands, 148 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Hueck, H. J., Kuenen, D. J., Den Boer, P. J., & Jaeger-Draafsel, E. (1952). The increase of egg production of the fruit tree red spider mite (Metatetranychus ulmi Koch) under influence of DDT. Physiologia Comparata et Oecologia, 2, 371-377.Google Scholar
  44. Hurej, M., & Dutcher, J. D. (1994a). Effect of esfenvalerate and disulfoton on the behavior of the blackmargined aphid, black pecan aphid, and yellow pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 87, 187-192.Google Scholar
  45. Hurej, M.., & Dutcher, J. D. (1994b). Indirect effect of insecticides on convergent lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in pecan orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87, 1632-1635.Google Scholar
  46. James, D. G., & Price T. S. (2002). Imidacloprid boosts TSSM egg production. Agricultural and Environmental News,189, 1-11. Available online: http://aenews.wsu.eduGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, E. F., Laing J. E., & Trottier, R. (1976). The seasonal occurrence of Lithocolletis blancardella (Gracillariidae) and its major natural enemies enemies in Ontario apple orchards. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Canada, 107, 31-45.Google Scholar
  48. Kaakeh, W., & Dutcher, J. D. (1992). Estimation of life parameters of Monelliopsis pecanis, Monellia caryella, and Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on single pecan leaflets. Environmental Entomology, 21, 632-639.Google Scholar
  49. Kerns, D. L., & Stewart, S. D. (1999). Sublethal effects of insecticides on the intrinsic rate of increase of cotton aphid. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 94, 41-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koch, R. L. (2003). The multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts. Journal of Insect Science, 3, 32PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuenen, D. J. (1958). Influence of sublethal doses of DDT upon multiplication rate of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 1, 147-152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lim, G. S., Sivapragasam, A., & Ruwaida, M. (1986). Impact assessment of Apanteles plutellae on diamondback moth using an insecticide-check method. Paper 19, in: Talekar, N. S. (Ed.). Diamondback Moth Management: Proceedings 1st International Workshop. AVRDC, Taiwan, 194-204.Google Scholar
  53. Lowery, D. T., & Sears, M. K. (1986a). Effect of exposure to the insecticide azinphomethyl on reproduction of green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79, 1534-1538.Google Scholar
  54. Lowery, D. T., & Sears, M. K. (1986b). Stimulation of reproduction of the green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) by azinphosmethyl applied to potatoes. Journal of Economic Entomology,9, 1530-1533.Google Scholar
  55. Luck, R. F., Van den Bosch, R. & Garcia, R. (1977). Chemical insect control - a troubled pest management strategy. BioScience 27, 606-611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Luck, R. F., Shepard, B. M., & Kenmore, P. E. (1988). Experimental methods for evaluating arthropod natural enemies. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 33, 367-389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luckey, T. D. (1968). Insect hormoligosis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61, 7-12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Margolies, D. C., & Kennedy, G. G. (1988). Fenvalerate-induced aerial dispersal by the twospotted spider mite. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 46, 233-240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Messing, R. H., & AliNiazee, M. T. (1985). Natural enemies of Myzocallis coryli (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Oregon hazelnut orchards. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 82, 14-18.Google Scholar
  60. Mitchell, E. R., Hu, G. Y., & Okine, J. S. (1997). Diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) infestation and parasitism by Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonide) in collards and adjacent cabbage fields. Florida Entomologist, 80, 54-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morse, J. G., & Zareh., N. (1991). Pesticide-induced hormoligosis of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fecundity. Journal of Economic Entomology 84, 1169-1174.Google Scholar
  62. Muckenfuss, A. E., Shepard, B. M. & Ferrer, E. R. (1992). Natural mortality of diamondback moth in coastal South Carolina. Paper 2. p 28-37 In:Talekar, N. S. (Ed.). Diamondback Moth Management: Proc. 2nd Inernational Workshop. AVRDC, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  63. Norris, R. F., Caswell-Chen, E. P., & Kogan, M. (2002). Concepts in Integrated Pest Management. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  64. Ooi, P. A. C. (1992). Role of parasitoids in managing diamondback moth in the Cameroon Highlands, Malaysia. Paper 28: p. 255-262 In: Talekar, N. S. (Ed.) Diamondback Moth Management: Proceedings 2nd International Workshop, AVRDC, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  65. Pedigo, L. P., & Rice M. E. (2006). Entomology and Pest Management. 5th Ed. Pearson, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  66. Peña, J. E., Mohyuddin, A. I., & Wysoki, M. (1998). A review of the pest management situation in mango agroecosystems. Phytoparasitica, 26, 1-20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Penman, D. R., & Chapman, R. B.. (1988). Pesticide-induced mite outbreaks: pyrethroids and spider mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 4, 265-276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Penman, D. R., Chapman, R. B., & Jesson, K. E. (1981). Effects of fenvalerate and azinphosmethyl on two-spotted spider mite and phytoseiid mites. Entomologia Experimentia Applicata, 30, 91-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perkins, J. H. (1982). Insects, Experts and the Insecticide Crisis: The Quest for New Pest Management Strategies. Plenum Press. New York, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pickering, J., Dutcher, J. D., & Ekbom, B. A. (1990). The effect of a fungicide on fungal-induced mortality of pecan aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the field. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83, 1801-1805Google Scholar
  71. Pickett, C. H., & Bugg, R. L. (1998). Enhancing Biological Control: Habitat Management to Promote Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  72. Pottinger, R. P., & LeRoux, E. J. (1971). The biology and dynamics of Lithocolletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on apple in Quebec. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 77, 437.Google Scholar
  73. Rebek, E. J., & Sadof, C. S. (2003). Effects of pesticide applications on the euonymus scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid, Encarsia citrina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 446-452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ripper, W. E. 1956. Effect of pesticides on the balance of arthropod populations. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 1, 403-438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rocha-Peña, M. A., Lee, R. F., Lastra, R., Niblett, C. L., Ochoa-orona, F. M, Garnsey S. M., et al. (1995). Citrus tristeza virus and its aphid vector Toxoptera citricida: threats to citrus production in the caribbean and central and North America. Plant Disease, 79, 437-445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rosenheim, J. A., Limburg, D. D., & Colfer, R. G. (1999). Impact of generalist predators on a biological control agent, Chrysoperla carnea: direct observations. Ecological Applications, 9, 409-417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruberson, J. R., & Knutson, A. (2006). Assessment of environmental toxicology to arthropod natural enemies. Chpt. 13 pp. 106-108. In All, J. N. & Treacy, M. F. (Eds). Use and Management of Insecticides, Acaricides, and Transgenic Crops. Entomological Society of America Handbook Series.Saito, T. (2004). Insecticide susceptibility of the leafminer, Chromatomyia hoticola (Goureau) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39, 203-208.Google Scholar
  78. Saito, T. (2004). Insecticide susceptibility of the leafminer, Chromatomyia hoticola (Goureau) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39, 203-208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sandhu, S. S., Chander, P., Sigh, J., & Sidhu, A. S. (1989). Effect of insecticidal sprays on the plant and secondary pest inductions in hirsutum cotton in Punjab. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 19, 169-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Settle, W. H., Ariawan, H., Astuti, E. T., Cahyana, W., Hakim, A. L., Hindayana, D., et al. (1996). Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternate prey. Ecology, 77, 1975-1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Skirvin, D. J. & Fenlon, J. S. (2003). The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental Applied Acarology, 31, 37-49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stevensson, D. E. & M. A. Matocha. 2005. A pest management strategic plan for cotton production in Texas. USDA-ARS/CSREES, 131 pp. Available online: Thistlewood, H. M. A. (1991). A survey of predatory mites in Ontario apple orchards with diverse pesticide programs. Canadian Entomologist, 123, 1163-1174.Google Scholar
  83. Thomas, M. P. (1999). Ecological Approaches and the Development of "Truly Integrated’’ Pest Management. Colloquim Paper, National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  84. Thomas, M. B., & Waage, J. K. (1996). Integration of Biological Control and Host Plant Resistance Breeding: A Scientific and Literature Review. Technology Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation. European Union, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  85. Trichilo, P. J., & Wilson, L. T.. (1993). An ecosystem analysis of spider mite outbreaks: physiological stimulation or natural enemy suppression. Entomologia Experimentia Applicata, 17, 291-314.Google Scholar
  86. Trumper, E. V., & Holt, J. (1998). Modelling pest population resurgence due to recolonization of fields following an insecticide application. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 273-285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2000). Pest management in the future - a strategic plan for the Michigan carrot industry, 69 pp. Available online: www.ipmcenters.orgGoogle Scholar
  88. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2002a). New Jersey peach pest management strategic plan. 50 p. Available online: www.ipmcenters.orgGoogle Scholar
  89. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2002b). Pest management strategic plan for North Carolina / Virginia peanuts. 69 p. Available online: www.ipmcenters.orgGoogle Scholar
  90. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2002c). Cranberry pest management strategic plan. 57 pp. Available online: Scholar
  91. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2003a). A pest management strategic plan for avocado in California. 45 p. Available online: Scholar
  92. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2003b). Sweet corn pest management strategic plan (north central states). 81 p. Available online: Scholar
  93. USDA-ARS/CSREES. (2003c). Field corn pest management strategic plan north central region. USDA-ARS/CSREES 84 pp. Available online: Scholar
  94. Van den Bosch, R., Hom, R., Matteson, P., Frazier, B. D., Messenger, P. S., & Davis, C. S. (1979). Biological control of walnut aphid in California: impact of the parasite, Trioxys pallidus. Hilgardia, 47, 1-13.Google Scholar
  95. Villanueva-Jiménez, J. A., Hoy, M. A. & Davies, F. S. (1998). Field evaluation of integrated pest management-compatible pesticides for the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 91, 401-409Google Scholar
  96. Weintraub, P. G., & Horowitz, A.R. (1995). The newest leafminer pest in Israel, Liriomyza huidobrensis. Phytoparasitica, 23, 177-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Widiarta, I. N., Matsumura, M., Suzuki, Y. & Nakasuji, F. (2001). Effects of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the fecundity of green leafhoppers, Nephotettix spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and their natural enemies. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36, 501-507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wong, S. W., & Chapman, R. B. (1979). Toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids to predaceous mites and their prey. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 30, 487-501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zalom, F. G., Phillips, P. A., Toscano, N. C., & Boldsa, M. (2005). Cyclamen mite. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3468.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Entomology DepartmentUniversity of GeorgiaTiftonUSA

Personalised recommendations