The Effects Of Forest Biomass Harvesting On Biodiversity

  • Mats Jonsell
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 12)

Extraction of dead wood as forest fuels will decrease the amounts of dead wood in the landscape. Because dead and decaying wood has been identified as a key factor in explaining why many forest species are threatened (Berg et al. 1994, Esseen et al. 1997), extraction of forest fuels may increase the threat. The wood that is presently in focus for use as forest fuel is mainly logging residues, i.e. twigs, branches and tops, although logging stumps and whole trees might also be used (see below). The logging residues may be defined as belonging to fine woody debris (FWD), in contrast to coarse woody debris (CWD). The limit between fine and coarse wood is here defined at 10 cm diameter. Coarse wood is widely acknowledged as an important habitat for saproxylic (wood living) organisms (Grove 2002), especially for threatened species (Berg et al. 1994), and many studies have therefore been done on saproxylic organisms in coarser dimensioned wood. Finer wood has been much less studied. It has generally been retained in forest operations and is therefore abundant in managed forest landscapes. However, comparative studies show that fine wood hosts a large number of species (Harz & Topp 1999, Kappes & Topp 2004, Kruys & Jonsson 1999, Nittérus et al. 2004, Nordén et al. 2004, Schiegg 2001). There might also be organisms that use the fine wood for shelter on open areas (Gunnarsson et al. 2004). Thus, the extraction of fine woody debris from the forest landscape might reduce the habitat for several organisms.


Coarse Woody Debris Dead Wood Forest Biomass Saproxylic Beetle Fine Wood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

6.9 References

  1. Abrahamsson M, Lindbladh M (2006) A comparison of saproxylic beetle occurrence between man-made high and low stumps of spruce (Picea abies). Forest Ecology and Managment 226:230-237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allmér J, Stenlid J, Dahlberg A (2005a) ITS TRLFLP identification of fungi colonising wood and needle baits show negligible effects of slash removal in Norway spruce stands after 25 years. In: Allmér J, Fungal communities in branch litter of Norway spruce: Dead wood dynamics, species detection and substrate preferences. PhD Thesis no. 2005:125, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Paper II:1-24Google Scholar
  3. Allmér J, Stenlid J, Dahlberg A (2005b) Fungal communities on fine woody debris of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in clearcuts, thinned and old growth forests in east central Sweden. In: Allmér J, Fungal communities in branch litter of Norway spruce: Dead wood dynamics, species detection and substrate preferences. PhD Thesis no. 2005:125, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Paper III:1-21Google Scholar
  4. Anderbrant O, Schlyter F, Birgersson G (1985) Intraspecific competition affecting parents and offspring in the bark beetle Ips typographus. Oikos 45:89-98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angelstam P, Andersson L (2001) Estimates of the needs for forest reserves in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Volume 16, Supplement 3:38-51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelstam P, Mikusinski G, Breuss M (2002) Biodiversity and forest habitats. In: Richardson J, Björheden R, Hakkila P, Lowe AT, Smith CT (eds) Bioenergy from Sustainable Forestry. Guiding Principles and Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 216-243Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (2000) Swedish standard for FSC certification of forestry. Swedish FSC CouncilGoogle Scholar
  8. Åström M, Dynesius M, Hylander K, Nilsson C (2005) Effects of slash harvest on bryophytes and vascular plants in southern boreal forest clear cuts. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:1194-1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Axelsson AL, Östlund L, Hellberg E (2002) Changes in mixed deciduous forests of boreal Sweden 1866-1999 based on interpretation of historical records. Landscape Ecology 17:403-418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaver RA (1989) Insect fungus relationships in the bark and ambrosia beetles. In: Wilding N, Collins NM, Hammond, PM, Webber JF (eds) Insect fungus interactions. 14th Symp. R. Entomol. Soc. London. Academic Press, pp 121-143Google Scholar
  11. Bengtsson J, Persson T, Lundkvist H (1997) Long term effects of logging residue addition and removal on macroarthropods and enchytraeids. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:1014-1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bengtsson J, Lundkvist H, Saetre P, Sohlenius B, Solbreck B (1998) Effects of organic matter removal on the soil food web: Forestry practices meet ecological theory. Applied Soil Ecology 9:137-143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bengtsson J, Nilsson SG, Franc A, Menozzi P (2000) Biodiversity, disturbances, ecosystem function and management of European forests. Forest Ecology and Management 132:39-50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berg Å, Ehnström B, Gustafsson L, Hallingbäck T, Jonsell M, Weslien J (1994) Threatened plant, animal, and fungus species in Swedish forests: Distribution and habitat associations. Conservation Biology 8:718-731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bird GA, Chatarpaul L (1986) Effect of whole tree and conventional harvest on soil microarthropods. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1986-1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Björse G, Bradshaw R (1998) 2000 years of forest dynamics in southern Sweden: suggestions for forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 104:15-26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boddy L (2001) Fungal community ecology and wood decomposition processes in angiosperms: from standing tree to complete decay of coarse woody debris. Ecological Bulletin 49:43-56Google Scholar
  18. Caruso A, Thor G (2007) Importance of different tree fractions for epiphytic lichen diversity on Picea abies and Populus tremula in mature managed boreonemoral forests. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22:219-230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crowson RA (1981) The Biology of the Coleoptera. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Dahlberg A, Stokland JN (2004) Vedlevande arters krav på substrat sammanställning och analys av 3600 arter. Rapport 7, Skogsstyrelsen (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  21. Dahlberg A, Allmér J, Kruys N, Nyström K, Hyvönen R, Ågren G, Majdi H (2005) Carbon availability in litter for saprotrophic fungi in Norway spruce forests: a modelling approach of mass and flux of dead plant matter from tree, field and bottom layer. In: Allmér J, Fungal communities in branch litter of Norway spruce: Dead wood dynamics, species detection and substrate preferences. PhD Thesis no. 2005:125, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Paper IV:1-35Google Scholar
  22. deJong J, Dahlberg A, Stokland JN (2004) Död ved i skogen. Hur mycket behövs för att bevara den biologiska mångfalden? Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 98:278-297 (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  23. Dynesius M (2005) Effekter av askåterföring på skogsväxters mångfold - slutrapport. Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna. Rapport Nr Project STEM-P13712-3 STEM-TB-05-3, 27 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Egnell G, Liedholm H, Lönnell N (2001) Skogsbränsle, hot eller möjlighet? vägledning till miljövänligt skogsbränsleuttag. Swedish Forest Agency (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  25. Ehnström B, Axelsson R (2002) Insekters gnag i bark och ved. ArtDatabanken, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  26. Ehnström B, Waldén HW (1986) Faunavård i skogsbruket den lägre faunan. (The protection and management of endangered and declining invertebrate species in Swedish woodlands). Swedish Forest Agency (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  27. Esseen PA, Ehnström B, Ericsson L, Sjöberg K, (1997) Boreal forests. Ecological Bulletins 46:16-47Google Scholar
  28. Fahrig L (2001) How much habitat is enough? Biological Conservation 100:65-74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fahrig L (2004) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 34:487-515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forsse E, Solbreck C (1985) Migration in the bark beetle Ips typographus L.: duration, timing and height of flight. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 100:47-57Google Scholar
  31. Fries C, Johansson O, Pettersson B, Simonsson P (1997) Silvicultural models to maintain and restore natural stand structures in Swedish boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 94:89-103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gärdenfors U, Hall R, Hallingbäck T, Hansson HG, Hedström L (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antalet arter per familj. ArtDatabanken, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  33. Gotelli N, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters 4:379-391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grove SJ (2002) Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 33:1-23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gunnarsson B, Nittérus K, Wirdenäs P (2004) Effects of logging residue removal on ground active beetles in temperate forests. Forest Ecology Management 201:229-239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanski I (1994) A practical model of metapopulation dynamics. Journal Animal Ecology 63:151-162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanski I (2000) Extinction debt and species credit in boreal forests: modelling the consequences of different approaches to biodiversity conservation. Annales Zoologici Fennici 37:271-280Google Scholar
  38. Harz B, Topp W (1999) Deadwood in commercial forest: a source of danger for the outbreak pest species? Forstwissenschaftliches Zentralblatt 118:302-313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hautala H, Jalonen J, Laaka-Lindberg S, Vanha-Majamaa I (2004) Impacts of retention felling on coarse woody debris (CWD) in mature boreal spruce forests in Finland. Biodiversity and Conservation. 13:1541-1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hedgren PO (2007) Early arriving saproxylic beetles Coleoptera) and parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in low and high stumps of Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 241:155-161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heilmann-Clausen J, Christensen M (2004) Does size matter? On the importance of various dead wood fractions for fungal diversity in Danish beech forests. Forest Ecology and Management 201:105-117Google Scholar
  42. Heilmann-Clausen J, Aude E, Christensen M (2005) Cryptogam communities on decaying deciduous wood - does tree species diversity matter? Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2061-2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Högberg N, Stenlid J, Karlsson JO (1995) Genetic differentiation in Fomitopsis pinicola (Schwarts: Fr.) Karst studied by means of arbitrary primed PCR. Molecular Ecology 4:675-680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huxel GR, Hastings A (1999) Habitat loss, fragmentation and restoration. Restoration Ecology 7:309-315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jonsell M, Nordlander G (1995) Field attraction of Coleoptera to odours of the wood decaying polypores Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius. Annales Zoologici Fennici 32:391-402Google Scholar
  46. Jonsell M, Weslien J (2003) Felled or standing retained wood - it makes a difference for saproxylic beetles. Forest Ecology and Management 175:425-435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jonsell M, Weslien J, Ehnström B (1998) Substrate requirements of red listed saproxylic invertebrates in Sweden. Biodiversity and Conservation 7:749-764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jonsell M, Schroeder M, Larsson T (2003) The saproxylic beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus: its frequency in managed forests, attraction to volatiles and flight period. Ecography 26:421-428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jonsell M, Nittérus K, Stighäll K (2004) Saproxylic beetles in natural and man made deciduous high stumps retained for conservation. Biological Conservation 118:163-173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jonsell M, Schroeder M, Weslien J (2005) Saproxylic beetles in high stumps of spruce fungal flora important for determining the species composition. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 20:54-62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jonsell M, Hansson J, Wedmo L (2007) Diversity of saproxylic beetle species in logging residues - comparisons between tree species and diameters. Biological Conservation 138:89-99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jonsson M (2003) Colonisation ability of the threatened tenebrionid beetle Oplocephala haemorrhoidalis and its common relative Bolitophagus reticulatus. Ecological Entomology 28:159-167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kappes H, Topp W (2004) Emergence of Coleoptera from deadwood in a managed broadleaved forest in central Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation 13:1905-1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kouki J, Löfman S, Martikainen P, Rouvinen S, Uotila A (2001) Forest fragmentation in Fennoscandia: Linking habitat requirements of wood associated threatened species to landscape and habitat changes. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research Supplement 3:27-37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kruys N, Jonsson BG (1999) Fine woody debris is important for species richness on logs in managed boreal spruce forests of northern Sweden. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1295-1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kullingsjö O (1999) The role of Corticaria rubripes (Coleoptera: Lathridiidae) in dispersal of fungi to burned forests. Undergraduate paper in entomology 1999:5. Dept. of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  57. Lindbladh M, Bradshaw R, Holmqvist BH (2000) Patterns and process in south Swedish forests during the last 3000 years, sensed at stand and regional scales. Journal of Ecology 88:113-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lindbladh M, Niklasson M, Nilsson SG (2003) Long time record of fire and open canopy in a high biodiversity forest in southeast Sweden. Biological Conservation 114:231-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lindhe A (2004) Conservation through management cut wood as substrate for saproxylic organisms. PhD Thesis, Silvestria 300, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  60. Lindhe A, Lindelöw Å (2004) Cut high stumps of spruce, birch, aspen and oak as breeding substrates for saproxylic beetles. Forest Ecology and Management 203:1-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lindhe A, Åsenblad N, Toresson HG (2004) Cut logs and high stumps of spruce, birch, aspen and oak - nine years of saproxylic fungi succession. Biological Conservation 119:443-454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lindhe A, Lindelöw Å, Åsenblad N (2005) Saproxylic beetles in standing dead wood density in relation to substrate sun exposure and diameter. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:3033-3053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moeck HA (1970) Ethanol as the primary attractant for the ambrosia beetle Trypodendron lineatum (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist 102:985-995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Niemelä J (1997) Invertebrates and boreal forest management. Conservation Biology 11:601-610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Niklasson M, Granström A (2000) Numbers, size, and frequency. Long term trends in fires on a north Swedish boreal landscape. Ecology 81:1484-1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nilssen AC (1984) Long range aerial dispersal of bark beetles and bark weevils (Coleoptera, Scolytidae and Curculionidae) in northern Finland. Annales Entomologicae Fennicae 50:37-42Google Scholar
  67. Nilsson SG (2001) Sydsveriges viktigaste områden för bevarandet av hotade arter vedskalbaggar som vägvisare till kärnområdena. Fauna och Flora 96:59-70 (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  68. Nilsson SG, Baranowski R (1997) Habitat predictability and the occurrence of wood beetles in old growth beech forests. Ecography 20:491-498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nilsson SG, Hedin J, Niklasson M (2001) Biodiversity and its assessment in boreal and nemoral forests. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research Supplement 3:10-26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nittérus K, Gunnarsson B, Axelsson E (2004) Insects reared from logging residue on clear cuts. Entomologica Fennica 15:53-61Google Scholar
  71. Nordén B, Larsson KH (2000) Basidiospore dispersal in the old growth forest fungus Phlebia centrifuga (Basidiomycetes Nordic Journal of Botany 20:215-219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nordén B, Ryberg M, Götmark F, Olausson B (2004) Relative importance of coarse and fine woody debris for the diversity of wood inhabiting fungi in temperate broadleaf forests. Biological Conservation 117:1-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Økland B (1994) Mycetophilidae (Diptera), an insect group vulnerable to forestry practices? A comparison of clearcut, managed and semi natural spruce forests in southern Norway. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:68-85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Økland B, Götmark F, Nordén B, Franc N, Kurina O, Polevoi A (2005) Regional diversity of mycetophilids (Diptera: Sciaroidea) in Scandinavian oak dominated forests. Biological Conservation 121:9-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Palm T (1951) Die Holz und Rindenkäfer der nordschwedische Laubbäume. Meddelanden från statens skogsforskningsinstitut 40:242 pp. (in German)Google Scholar
  76. Palm T (1959) Die Holz und Rindenkäfer der süd und mittelschwedischen Laubbäume. Opuscula Entomologica Supplementum 16:1-374 (in German)Google Scholar
  77. Persson T, Ahlström K, Lindberg N (2005) Effekter av GROTuttag på biologisk mångfald hos markfaunan. Slutrapport till Energimyndigheten (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  78. Raivio S, Normark E, Pettersson B, Salpakivi Salomaa P (2001) Science and the management of boreal forest biodiversity Forest industries’ views. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research Supplement 3:99-104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ranius T, Jansson N (2000) The influence of forest regrowth, original canopy cover and tree size on saproxylic beetles associated with old oaks. Biological Conservation 95:85-94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Renvall P (1995) Community structure and dynamics of wood rotting Basidiomycetes on decomposing conifer trunks in northern Finland. Karstenia 35:1-51Google Scholar
  81. Rudolphi, Gustafsson L (2005) Effects of forest fuel harvesting on the amount of deadwood on clear cuts. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 20:235-242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schiegg K (2001) Saproxylic insect diversity of beech: limbs are richer than trunks. Forest Ecology and Management 149:295-304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schroeder LM (1988) Attraction of the bark beetle Tomicus piniperda and some other bark and wood living beetles to the host volatiles ± pinene and ethanol. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 46:203-210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Siitonen J (2001) Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: Fennoscandian boreal forests as an example. Ecological Bulletin 49:11-41Google Scholar
  85. Söderström L (1988) Sequence of bryophytes and lichens in relation to substrate variables of decaying coniferous wood in Northern Sweden. Nordic Journal of Botany 8:89-97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Solbreck C (1978) Migration, diapause, and direct development as alternative life histories in a seed bug, Neacoryphus bicrucis. In: Dingle, H. (ed.) Evolution of Insect Migration and Diapause. Springer Verlag, pp 195-217Google Scholar
  87. Solbreck C (1980) Dispersal distances of migrating pine weevils, Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 28:123-131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Solheim H, Långström B (1991) Blue stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary observations on their pathogenicity. Annales des sciences forestières 48:149-156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Southwood TRE (1977) Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies? Journal of Animal Ecology 46:337-365Google Scholar
  90. Speight MCD (1989) Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation. Council of EuropeGoogle Scholar
  91. Svenning JC (2002) A review of natural vegetation openness in north western Europe. Biological Conservation 104:133-148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vanha-Majamaa I, Jalonen J (2001) Green tree retention in Fennoscandian forestry. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research Supplement 3:79-90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wedmo L (2004) Saproxylic beetles in logging residuals from Populus tremula and Betula spp. Undergraduate paper 2004:3, Dept. of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  94. Weslien J, Lindelöw Å (1989) Trapping a local population of spruce bark beetles Ips typographus (L.): Population size and origin of trapped beetles. Holarctic Ecology 12:511-514Google Scholar
  95. Weslien J, Lindelöw Å (1990) Recapture rates of marked spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus (L.)) populations using a mass trapping method. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:1786-1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wikars LO (2002) Dependence on fire in wood living insects: An experiment with burned and unburned spruce and birch logs. Journal of Insect Conservation 6:1-12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zackrisson O (1977) Influence of forest fires on the North Swedish boreal forest. Oikos 29:22-32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Jonsell
    • 1
  1. 1.Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesSweden

Personalised recommendations