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Chapter II Shipping Patterns Associated with the Panama Canal: Effects on Biotic Exchange?

  • Gregory M. Ruiz
  • Julio Lorda
  • Ashley Arnwine
  • Kelly Lion

Keywords

Biological Invasion Ballast Water Trade Route Vessel Type Panama Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory M. Ruiz
    • 1
  • Julio Lorda
    • 2
  • Ashley Arnwine
    • 3
  • Kelly Lion
    • 4
  1. 1.Smithsonian Environmental Research CenterEdgewaterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Smithsonian Environmental Research CenterEdgewaterUSA
  4. 4.Smithsonian Environmental Research CenterEdgewaterUSA

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