Advertisement

Consequences of Educational Change for the Burden of Chronic Health Problems in the Population

  • Mark D. Hayward
  • Eileen M. Crimmins
  • Zhenmei Zhang
Part of the International Studies In Population book series (ISIP, volume 3)

Changes in the public and individual burden of chronic health problems have significant implications for the allocation of public and private resources across generations. Preston (1984) noted almost two decades ago that population ageing in the United States was accompanied by the rapid expansion of public programs benefiting the health of elderswhile public programs benefiting children’s education contracted. Health care is the principal public service provided to the elderly while education is the counterpart for children.

Within a historical time period, political choices about the funding of age-targeted service programs have an urgency that oftentimes sweeps aside the fact that investments in children’s well-being pay substantial dividends decades later when children become the elders of a population. In large part, this reflects a lack of attention both by policy makers and by demographers of these long-run associations. Here, we provide new insights into the longrun consequences of investments in children for the burden of chronic health problems by conducting a thought experiment in which we simulate how sweeping historical changes in a population’s educational achievement potentially alters active life expectancy and the prevalence of functioning problems in the population.

Keywords

Educational Attainment Life Table Functional Limitation Educational Change Functional Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahuja, V. and Filmer, D. (1995), “Educational attainment in developing countries: New estimates and projections disaggregated by gender. ” A Background Paper for the World Development Report 1995.Google Scholar
  2. Behrman, J., Sickles, R., Taubman, P. and Yazbeck, A. (1991), “Inequalities in black-white mortality. ” Journal of Econometrics, 50:183-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, F. C., Wade, A. H. and Goss, S. C. (1992), Life Tables for the United States Social Security Area 1900-2080, Actuarial Study No. 107. Social Security Administration Office of the Actuary: Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  4. Brunner, E., Smith, G. D., Marmot, M., Canner, R., Beksinska, M. and O’Brien, J. (1996), “Childhood social circumstances and psychosocial and behavioural factors as determinants of plasma fibrinogen. ” Lancet, 347:1008-1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caldwell, J. C. (1979), “Education as a factor in mortality decline: An examination of Nigerian data. ” Population Studies, 33:395-413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costa, D. L. (1999), “Understanding the Twentieth Century decline in chronic conditions among older men. ” Demography, 37:53-71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crimmins, E. M. (1996), “Mixed trends in population health among older adults. ” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 51B:S223-S225.Google Scholar
  8. Crimmins, E. M., Hayward, M. D. and Saito, Y. (1994), “Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population. ” Demography, 31:159-175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crimmins, E. M., Hayward, M. D. and Saito, Y. (1996), “Differentials in active life expectancy in the older population. ” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 51B:S111-S120.Google Scholar
  10. Day, J. C. and Bauman, K. J. (2000), “Have we reached the top? Educational attainment projections of the U. S. population. ” Working Paper Series No. 43. Poulation Division, U. S. Census Bureau. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Easterlin, R. A. (1997), Growth Triumphant: The Twenty-first Century in Historical Perspective, The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  12. Elo, I. T. and Preston, S. H. (1992), “Effects of early-life conditions on adult mortality: A review. ” Population Index, 58:186-212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feinstein, J. S. (1993), “The relationship between socioeconomic status and health: A review of the literature. ” The Milbank Quarterly, 71:279-322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freedman, V. A. and Martin, L. G. (1999), “The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans. ” Demography, 36:461-473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gustavus, S. O. and Nam, C. B. (1968), “Estimates of the ‘true’ educational distribution of the adult population of the United States from 1910 to 1960. ” Demography, 5:410-421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayward, M. D., Crimmins, E. M., Miles, T. P. and Yu, Y. (2000), “The significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the racial gap in chronic health conditions. ” American Sociological Review, 65:910-930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayward, M. D., Crimmins, E. M. and Saito, Y. (1998), “Cause of death and active life expectancy in the older population of the United States. ” Journal of Aging and Health, 10:192-213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayward, M. D. and Zhang, Z. (2001), “The demographic revolution in population aging: A century of change, 1950-2050. ” In: Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, Fifth Edition, R. K. Binstock and L. K. George, eds. pp. 69-85. Academic Press: New York.Google Scholar
  19. House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Kinney, A. M., Mero, R. P., Kessler, R. C. and Herzog, R. A. (1994). “The social stratification of aging and health. ” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35:213-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuh, D. and Smith G. D. (1997), “The life course and adult chronic disease: A historical perspective with particular reference to coronary heart disease. ” In: A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, D. Kuh and B. Ben-Shlomo, eds. pp. 15-41. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  21. Kuh, D., Power, C., Blane, D. and Bartley, M. (1997), “Social pathways between childhood and adult health. ” In: A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, D. Kuh and Y. Ben-Shlomo, eds. pp. 169-198. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  22. Kuh, D. and Wadsworth, M. E. J. (1993), “Physical health status at 36 years in a British national birth cohort. ” Social Science and Medicine, 37:905-916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A. and Salonen, J. T. (1997), “Why do poor people behave poorly? Variation in adult health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics by stages of the socioeconomic lifecourse. ” Social Science and Medicine, 44:809-819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Manton, K. G. and Stallard, E. (1997), “Health and disability differences among racial and ethnic groups. ” In: Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans, L. G. Martin and B. Soldo, eds. pp. 285-300. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  25. Palloni, A. (1981), “Mortality in Latin America: Emerging patterns. ” Population and Development Review, 7:623-649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Preston, S. H. (1975), “The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. ” Population Studies, 29:231-248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. (1984), “Children and the elderly: Divergent paths for America’s dependents. ” Demography, 21:435-457.Google Scholar
  28. Preston, S. H. and Taubman, P. (1994), “Socioeconomic differences in adult mortality and health status. ” In: Demography of Aging, L. G. Martin and S. H. Preston, eds. pp. 279-318. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  29. Rogers, A., Rogers, R. G. and Belanger, A. (1990), “Longer life but worse health? Measurement and dynamics. ” The Gerontologist, 30:640-649.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers, R. G., Rogers, A., and Belanger, A. (1989), “Active life among the elderly in the United States: Multistate life-table estimates and population projections. ” The Milbank Quarterly, 67:370-411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ross, C. E. and Mirowsky, J. (1999), “Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. ” Demography, 36:445-460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ross, C. E. and Wu, C. L. (1996), “Education, age, and the cumulative advantage in health. ” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37:104-20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Verbrugge, L. M. (1989), “Recent, present, and future health of American adults. ” Annual Review of Public Health, 10:333-361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wils, A. and Goujon, A. (1998), “Diffusion of education in six world regions, 1960-1990. ” Population and Development Review, 24:357-368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Winkleby, M. A., Jatulis, D. E., Frank, E. and Fortmann, S. P. (1992), “Socioeconomic status and health: How education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease” [see comments] . American Journal of Public Health, 82:816-820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zimmer, Z., Hermalin, A. I. and Lin, H. -S. (2002), “Whose education counts? The added impact of adult-child education on physical functioning of older Taiwanese. ” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57:S23-S32.Google Scholar
  37. Zimmer, Z., Liu, X., Hermalin, A. and Chuang, Y. L. (1998), “Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older Taiwanese. ” Demography, 35:361-375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Hayward
    • 1
  • Eileen M. Crimmins
    • 2
  • Zhenmei Zhang
  1. 1.The University of TexasUSA
  2. 2.University of Southern CaliforniaUSA

Personalised recommendations