The Diversity of Plastid Form and Function

  • Robert R. Wise

Plastids are semiautonomous organelles found, in one form or another, in practically all plant and algal cells, several taxa of marine mollusks and at least one phylum of parasitic protists. The members of the plastid family play pivotal roles in photosynthesis, amino acid and lipid synthesis, starch and oil storage, fruit and flower coloration, gravity sensing, stomatal functioning, and environmental perception. Plastids arose via an endosym biotic event in which a protoeukaryotic cell engulfed and retained a photosynthetic bacterium. This polyphyletic event occurred multiple times between roughly 1.5 to 1.6 billion years ago. Although most of the algal genes were transferred to the nuclear genome, plastids have retained a complete protein synthesizing machinery and enough information to code for about 100 of their approximately 2,500 proteins; all other plastid proteins are coded for by the nuclear genome and imported from the cytoplasm. Plastids divide via fission prior to cytokinesis and are equally apportioned between the two daughter cells, along with the rest of the cytoplasmic contents.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aach H, Bode H, Robinson DG and Graebe JE (1997) ent-Kaurene synthase is located in proplastids of meristematic shoot tissues. Planta 202: 211-219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achor DS, Nemiec S and Baker RA (1993) Effects of Fusarium-solani napththazarin toxins on the cytology and ultrastructure of rough lemon seedlings. Mycopathologia 123: 117-126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Algera L, Beijer J, Iterson W and Karstens W (1947) Some data on the structure of the chloroplast, obtained by electron mi-croscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1: 517-526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen JF (1992) Protein phosphorylation in regulation of photo-synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1098: 275-335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson JM, Chow WS and Goodchild DJ (1988) Thylakoid membrane organisation in sun/shade acclimation. Aust J Plant Physiol 15: 11-26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH and Senger H (1999) The Chloro-plast: From Molecular Biology to Biotechnology. Kluwer Aca-demic Publishers, Dordrecht and BostonGoogle Scholar
  7. Arimura S, Hirai A and Tsutsumi N (2001) Numerous and highly developed tubular projections from plastids observed in to-bacco epidermal cells. Plant Sci 160: 449-454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Assmann SM (1999) The cellular basis of guard cell sensing of rising CO2 . Plant Cell Environ 22: 629-637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bain JM (1968) A crystalline inclusion in the chloroplasts of the outer hypodermal cells of the banana fruit. Aust J Biol Sci 21: 421-427Google Scholar
  10. Baker NL and Butler WL (1976) Development of the primary photochemical apparatus of photosynthesis during greening of etiolated bean leaves. Plant Physiol 58: 526-529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barber J (ed) (1976) The Intact Chloroplast (Topics in Photosyn-thesis, vol. 1). Elsevier Scientific Pub Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Barclay GF, Oparka KJ and Johnson RPC (1977) Induced dis-ruption of the sieve element plastids in Heracleum mantegazz-ianum L. J Exptl Bot 28: 709-717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Behnke HD (1991) Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. Aliso 3: 167-182Google Scholar
  14. Bennett J (1991) Protein phosphorylation in green plant chloro-plasts. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Molec Biol 42: 281-311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernacchi CJ, Portis AR, Nakano H, von Caemmerer S and Long SP (2002) Temperature response of mesophyll conductance. Implications for the determination of Rubisco enzyme kinetics and for limitations to photosynthesis in vivo. Plant Physiol 130: 1992-1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Björkman O and Holmgren P (1963) Adaptability of the photo-synthetic apparatus to adapt to light intensity in ecotypes from exposed and shaded habitats. Physiol Plant 16: 889-914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackwell MF, Gibas C, Gygax S, Roman D and Wagner B (1994) The plastoquinone diffusion coefficient in chloroplasts and its mechanistic implications. Biochim Biophys Acta 1183: 533-543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boland MJ and Schubert KR (1983) Biosynthesis of purines by a proplastid fraction from soybean nodules Glycine max. Arch Biochem Biophys 220: 179-187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonora A, Pancaldi S, Gualandri R and Fasulo MP (2000) Carotenoid and ultrastructure variations in plastids of Arum italicum Miller fruit during maturation and ripening. J Exptl Bot 51(346): 873-884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouvier F, Backhaus RA and Camara B (1998) Induction and control of chromoplast-specific carotenoid genes by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 273: 30651-30659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broadwater S and Scott J (1994) Ultrastructure of unicellular red algae. In: Seckbach J (ed) Evolutionary Pathway and Enig-matic Algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells, pp 215-230. Kluwer Academic Pub, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  22. Bruno AK and Wetzel CM (2004) The early light-inducible protein (ELIP) gene is expressed during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition in ripening tomato fruit. J Exptl Bot 55 (408): 2541-2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buckley TN and Farquhar GD (2004) A new analytical model for whole-leaf potential electron transport rate. Plant Cell Environ 27: 1487-1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casadoro G and Rascio N (1977) Morphogenesis of membrane-bound bodies in belladonna ( Atrop belladonna L.) plastids. J Ultrast Res 61: 186-192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clark KB, Jensen KR and Stirts HM (1990) Survey for functional kleptoplasty among west Atlantic ascoglossa (=sacoglossa) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Veliger 33: 339-345Google Scholar
  26. Cunningham FX Jr. and Gantt E (1998) Genes and enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Molec Biol 49: 557-583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cunningham FX Jr, Dennenberg RJ, Mustardy L, Jursinic PA and Gantt E (1989) Stoichiometry of photosystem I, photosystem II, and phycobilisomes in the red alga Porphyridium cruentumas a function of growth irradiance. Plant Physiol 91: 1179-1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Darwin E (1791) The botanic garden; a poem in two parts (I. The economy of vegetation, 1791. II. The loves of the plants, 1789)Google Scholar
  29. Dekker JP and Boekema EJ (2005) Supramolecular organiza-tion of thylakoid membrane proteins in green plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1706: 12-39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deru ère J, R ömer S, d’Harlingue A, Backhaus RA, Kuntz M and Camara B (1994) Fibril assembly and carotenoid over accu-mulation: a model for supramolecular lipoprotein structures. Plant Cell 6: 119-133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Devide Z and Ljubesic N (1974) The reversion of chromoplasts to chloroplasts in pumpkin fruits. Z Pflanz 73: 296-306Google Scholar
  32. Domanskii V, Rassadina V, Gus-Mayer S, Wanner G, Schoch S and Rudiger W (2003) Characterization of two phases of chlorophyll formation during greening of etiolated barley leaves. Planta 216: 475-483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dudkina NV, Eubel H, Keegstra W, Boekema EJ and Braun HP (2005) Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 3225-3229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dvorak J and Stokrova J (1993) Structure of the needles in the early phases of development in Pinus ponderosa P. et C. Lawson with special reference to plastids. Ann Bot 72: 423-431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Edwards GE, Franceschi VR and Voznesenskaya EV (2004) Single-cell C4 photosynthesis versus the dual-cell (Kranz) paradigm. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55: 173-196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ehlers K, Knoblauch M and van Bel AJE (2000) Ultrastructural features of well-preserved and injured sieve elements: minute clamps keep the phloem transport conduits free for mass flow. Protoplasma 214: 80-92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Esau K (1944) Anatomical and cytological studies on beet mosaic. J Agric Res 69: 95-117Google Scholar
  38. Esau K (1975) Crystalline inclusion in thylakoids of spinach chloroplasts. J Ultrast Res 53: 235-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eschrich W, Burchardt R and Essiamah S (1989) The induction of sun and shade leaves of the European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.): anatomical studies. Trees Struct Funct 3: 1-10Google Scholar
  40. Farquhar GD, Caemmerer S von and Berry JA (1980) A biochem-ical model of photosynthetic CO2 carbon dioxide assimilation in leaves of C3 carbon pathway species. Planta 149: 78-90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Farquhar GD, Caemmerer S von and Berry JA (2001) Models of photosynthesis. Plant Physiol 125: 42-45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fawley MW and Grossman AR (1986) Polypeptides of a light-harvesting complex of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricounutum are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the cell as precursors. Plant Physiol 81: 149-155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferguson SJ (1998) Nitrogen cycle enzymology. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2: 182-193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fitzsimons PJ and Weyers JDB (1983) Separation and purifi-cation of protoplast types from Commelina communis L. leaf epidermis. J Exptl Bot 34: 55-66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frechilla S, Talbott LD and Zeiger E (2001) The CO2 response of Vicia guard cells acclimates to growth environment. J Exptl Bot 53(368): 545-550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Frechilla S, Talbott LD and Zeiger E (2004) The blue light-specific response of Vicia faba stomata acclimates to growth environment. Plant Cell Physiol 45: 1709-1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frey TG, Renken CW and Perkins GA (2002) Insight into mi-tochondrial structure and function from electron tomography. Biochim Biophys Acta 1555: 196-203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gardner IC, Abbas H and Scott A (1989) The occurrence of amoeboid plastids in the actinorhizal root nodules of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Plant Cell Environ 12: 205-211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gibbs SP (1981) The chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum: structure, function, and evolutionary significance. Intl Rev Cytol 72: 49-99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gotow K, Taylor S and Zeiger E (1988) Photosynthetic carbon fixation in guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba L evidence from radiolabeled experiments. Plant Physiol 86: 700-705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grabowski B, Cunningham FX Jr. and Gantt E (2001) Chlorophyll and carotenoid binding in a simple red algal light-harvesting complex crosses phylogenetic lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 2911-2916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Granick S and Porter K (1947) The structure of the spinach chloroplast as interpreted with the electron microscope. Amer J Bot 34: 545-550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gray JC, Sullivan JA, Hibberd JM and Hanson MR (2001) Stromules: mobile protrusions and interconnections between plastids. Plant Biol 3: 223-233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenwood B and Mutabingwa T (2002) Malaria in 2002. Nature 415: 670-672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grew N (1682) The anatomy of plants: with an idea of a philosophical history of plants and several other lectures, read before the Royal Society, W Rawlins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Gunning BES (2001) Membrane geometry of “open” prolamel-lar bodies. Protoplasma 215: 4-15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gunning BES (2004) Plant Cell Biology on CD “Plant Cell Biology on CD”, details at www.plantcellbiologyonCD.com.
  58. Haehnel W, Tatajczak R and Robenek H (1989) Lateral distribu-tion and diffusion of plastocyanin in chloroplast thylakoids. J Cell Biol 108: 1397-1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harris JB (1981) Some correlated events in aging leaf tissues of tree tomato and tobacco. Bot Gaz 142: 43-54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris JB and Arnott HJ (1973) Effects of senescence on chloroplasts of the tobacco leaf. Tiss Cell 5: 527-544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harsanyi A, Boddi B, Boka K and Gaborjanyi R (2005) Pathogen affected greening process of barley seedlings infected with BSMV by seed transmission. Cereal Res Comm 33: 209-212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hawkes PW (1972) Electron Optics and Electron Microscopy. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Heldt HW and Saur F (1971) The inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope as a site of specific metabolite transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 243: 83-91Google Scholar
  64. Helmchen TA, Bhattacharya D and Melkonian M (1995) Anal-ysis of ribosomal RNA sequences from glaucocystophyte cyanelles provide new insights into the evolutionary relationships of plastids. J Molec Evol 41: 203-210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Herman EM and Larkins BA (1999) Protein storage bodies and vacuoles. Plant Cell 11: 601-614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hernandez-Pinzon I, Ross JHE, Barnes KA, Damant AP and Murphy DJ (1999) Composition and role of tapetal lipid bodies in the biogenesis of the pollen coat of Brassica napus. Planta 208: 588-598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. H örtensteiner S (2004) The loss of green colour during chloro-phyll degradation—a prerequisite to prevent cell death. Planta 219: 191-194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. H örtensteiner S and Feller U (2002) Nitrogen metabolism and remobilization during senescence. J Exptl Bot 53(370): 927-937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hsieh K and Huang AHC (2004) Endoplasmic reticulum, oleosins, and oils in seeds and tapetum cells. Plant Physiol 136: 3427-3434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hurkman WJ and Kennedy GS (1976) Fine structure and development of proteoplasts in primary leaves of mung bean. Protoplasma 89: 171-184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iino M and Hashimoto H (2003) Intermediate features of cyanelle division of Cyanophora paradoxa (Glaucocysto-phyta) between cyanobacterial and plastid division. J Phycol 39: 561-569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. James MG, Denyer K and Myers AM (2003) Starch synthesis in the cereal endosperm. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6: 215-222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Juneau P, Le Lay P, Boddi B, Samson G and Popovic R (2002) Relationship between the structural and functional changes of the photosynthetic apparatus during chloroplast-chromoplast transition in flower bud of Lilium longiflorum. Photochem Photobiol 75: 377-381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kausche GA and Ruska H (1940) Uber den Nachweis von Molekulen des Tabakmosaikvirus in den Chloroplasten viruskranker Pflanzen. Die Naturwissschaften 28: 303Google Scholar
  75. Kirk JTO and Tilney-Bassett RAE (1967) The Plastids, Their Chemistry, Structure, Growth and Inheritance. WH Freeman and Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Knoblauch M and van Bel AJE (1998) Sieve tubes in action. Plant Cell 10: 35-50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knoblauch M, Hibberd JM, Gray JC and van bel AJE (1999) The galinstan expansion femtosyringe allows microinjection of eukaryotic organelles and prokaryotes. Nature Biotech 17: 906-909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. K öhler RH and Hanson MR (2000) Plastid tubules of higher plants are tissue specific and developmentally regulated. J Cell Sci 113: 81-89Google Scholar
  79. Kutik J, Hola D, Kocova M, Rothova O, Haisel D, Wilhelmova N and Ticha I (2004) Ultrastructure and dimensions of chloroplasts in leaves of three maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F-1 hybrids grown under moderate chilling stress. Photosynthetica 42: 447-455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krishna KB, Joshi MK, Vani B and Mohanty P (1999) Structure-function correlation during the etioplast-chloroplast transition in cucumber cotyledonary leaves. Photosynthetica 36: 199-212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kugrens P, Clay BL, Meyer CJ and Lee RE (1999) Ultrastruc-ture and description of Cyanophora biloba, sp., Nov., with additional observations on C. paradoxa (Glaucophyta). J Phycol 35: 844-854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kurisu G, Zhang H, Smith JL and Cramer WA (2003) Structure of the cytochrome b6 f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis: Tuning the cavity. Science 302: 1009-1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kwok EY and Hanson MR (2003) Microfilaments and micro-tubules control the morphology and movement of non-green plastids and stromules in Nicotiana tabacum. Plant J 35: 16-26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laetsch WM (1968) Chloroplast specializations in dicotyle-dons possessing the C4 -dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthetic CO2 fixation. Amer J Bot 55: 875-883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Laetsch WM (1974) The C4 syndrome, a structural analysis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 25: 27-52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lancer HA, Cohen CE and Schiff JA (1976) changing ratios of phototransformable protochlorophyll and protochlorophyllide of bean seedlings developing in the dark. Plant Physiol 57: 369-374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Labrum AWD, Douglas SE and Raven JA (eds) (2003) Pho-tosynthesis in Algae. In: Govindjee (series ed) Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 14, Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  88. Larkum T and Howe CJ (1997) Molecular aspects of light harvesting processes in algae. Adv Bot Res 27: 257-330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lasc ève G, Leymarie J and Vavasseur A (1997) Alterations in light-induced stomatal opening in a starch-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana L. deficient in chloroplast phosphoglucomutase activity. Plant Cell Environ 20: 350-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lawrence SD, Cline K and Moore GA (1997) Chromoplast development in ripening tomato fruit: identification of cDNAs for chromoplast-targeted proteins and characterization of a cDNA encoding a plastid-localized low-molecular-weight heat shock protein. Plant Molec Biol 33: 483-492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lebkuecher JG, Haldeman KA, Harris CE, Holz SL, Joudah SA and Minton DA (1999) Development of photosystem-II activity during irradiance of etiolated Helianthus (Asteraceae) seedlings. Amer J Bot 86: 1087-1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leech RM (1984) Chloroplast development in angiosperms: current knowledge and future prospects. In: Baker NR and Barber J (eds) Topics in Photosynthesis, Chloroplast Biogenesis, Vol 5, pp 1-21. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  93. Li N and Cattolico RA (1987) Chloroplast genome organization in the red alga Griffithsia pacifica. Mol Gen Genet 209: 343-351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C, Doll M, Fietz HJ, Bach T, Kozel U, Meier D and Rahmsdorf (1981) Photosynthetic activity, chloroplast ultrastructure, and leaf characteristics of high-light and low-light plants and of sun and shade leaves Fa-gus sylvatica, radishes, and wheat. Photosyn Res 2: 115-141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Littler MM, Littler DS, Blair SM and Norris JM (1985) Deepest known plant life discovered on an uncharted seamount. Science 227: 57-59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ljubesic N (1972) Ultrastructural changes of plastids during the yellowing of the fruit of Cucurbita pepo var pyriformis. Acta Bot Croatia 31: 47-53Google Scholar
  97. L öffelhardt W, Bohnert HJ and Bryant DA (1997) The complete sequence of the Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelle genome. In: Bhattacharya D (ed) Origins of Algae and their Plastids, pp 149-162. Wien, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  98. MacColl R and Gaurd-Friar D (1987) Phycobiliproteins. CRC Press, Boca Raton FLGoogle Scholar
  99. Mannella CA, Marko M, Penczek P, Barnard D and Frank J (1994) The internal compartmentation of rat-liver mitochon-dria: tomographic study using the high-voltage transmission electron microscope. Micros Res Tech 27: 278-283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Marín A and Ros J (2004) Chemical defenses in Sacoglossan Opisthobranchs: taxonomic trends and evolutive implications. Scientia Mar 68: 227-241Google Scholar
  101. Marinos NG (1967) Multifunctional plastids in the meristematic region of potato tuber buds. J Ulrastruct Res 17: 91-113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martinoia E, Heck U, Dalling MJ and Matile P (1983) Changes in chloroplast number and chloroplast constituents in senes-cencing barley leaves. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 178: 147-155Google Scholar
  103. Matile P (1992) Chloroplast senescence. In: Baker NR and Thomas H (eds) Crop Photosynthesis: Spatial and Temporal Determinants, pp 423-440. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  104. McCracken DA and Cain JR (1981) Amylose in floridean starch of higher red algae. New Phytol 88: 67-71Google Scholar
  105. McFadden GI (1993) Second hand chloroplasts: Evolution of cryptomonad algae. Adv Bot Res 19: 189-230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Musser RL, Thomas SA, Wise RR, Peeler TC and Naylor AW (1984) Chloroplast ultrastructure, pigment composition, and chlorophyll fluorescence in shoot-chilled soybeans. Plant Physiol 74: 749-754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Natesan SKA, Sullivan JA and Gray JC (2005) Stromules: a characteristic cell-specific feature of plastid morphology. J Exptl Bot 56: 787-797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Negm FB, Cornel FA and Plaxton WC (1995) Suborganellar localization and molecular characterization of nonproteolytic degraded leukoplast pyruvate kinase from developing castor oil seeds. Plant Physiol 109: 1461-1469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Neuhaus HE and Emes MJ (2000) Nonphotosynthetic metabolism in plastids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51: 111-140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Newcomb EH (1967) Fine structure of protein-storing plastids in bean root tips. J Cell Biol 33: 143-163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nozue M, Yamada K, Nakamura T, Kubo H, Kondo M and Nishimura M (1997) Expression of a vacuolar protein (VP24) in anthocyanin-producing cells of sweet potato in suspension culture. Plant Physiol 115: 1065-1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ogren WL (1984) Photorespiration: pathways, regulation, and modification. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 415-442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Olliaro P (2001) Mode of action and mechanisms of resistance for antimalarial drugs. Pharmacol Therapy 89: 207-219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Oquist G, Anderson JM, McCaffery S and Chow WS (1992) Mechanistic differences in photoinhibition of sun and shade plants. Planta 188: 422-431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Outlaw WH, Mayne BC, Zenger VA and Manchester J (1981) Presence of both photosystems in guard cells of Vicia faba L.: implications for environmental signal processing. Plant Physiol 67: 12-16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ozuna R, Yera R, Ortega K and Tallman G (1985) Analysis of guard cell viability and action in senescing leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco. Plant Physiol 79: 7-10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pacini E, Taylor PE, Singh MB and Knox RB (1992) Develop-ment of plastids in pollen and tapetum of rye-grass, Lolium perenne L. Ann Bot 70: 179-188Google Scholar
  118. Park H, Kreunen SS, Cuttriss AJ, Dean DellaPenna D and Pogson BJ (2002) Identification of the carotenoid isomerase provides insight into carotenoid biosynthesis, prolamellar body formation, and photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell 14: 321-332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Parthier B (1988) Gerontoplasts—the yellow end in the ontoge-nesis of chloroplasts. Endocytobio Cell Res 5: 163-190Google Scholar
  120. Pascher A (1929) U¨ ber die Teilungsvorg änge bei einer neuen Blaualge: Endonema. Jahrb Wiss Bot 70: 329-347Google Scholar
  121. Pearcy RW (1990) Sunflecks and photosynthesis in plant canopies. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Molec Biol 41: 421-453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Peoples MB and Dalling MJ (1988) The interplay between proteolysis and amino acid metabolism during senescence and nitrogen reallocation. In: Nooden LD and Leopold AC (eds.) Senescence and Aging in Plants. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 181-217Google Scholar
  123. Price JL and Thomson WW (1967) Occurrence of a crystalline inclusion the chloroplasts of Macadamia leaves. Nature 214: 1148-1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pyke KA (1999) Plastid division and development. Plant Cell 11: 549-556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pyke KA and Howells CA (2002) Plastid and stromule morphogenesis in tomato. Ann Bot 90: 559-566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Raikhel N and Chrispeels MJ (2000) Chapter 4. Protein sorting and vesicle traffic. In: Buchanan BB, Gruissem W and Jones RL (eds) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, pp 160-201. Amer Soc Plant Biol, Rockville, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  127. Rasmussen N (1997) Picture Control. The Electron Microscope and the Transformation of Biology in America, 1940-1960. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  128. Raven JA and Allen JF (2003) Genomics and chloroplast evolution: what did cyanobacteria do for plants? Genome Biology 4:209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Reinert J (1980) Chloroplasts In: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation, vol. 10. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  130. Ross JHE, Milanesi C, Murphy DJ and Cresti R (2000) Rapid-freeze fixation and substitution improves tissue preservation of microspores and tapetum in Brassica napus. Sex Plant Reprod 12: 237-240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Roughan PG and Slack CR (1982) Cellular organization of glycerolipid metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33: 97-132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rozak PR, Seiser RM, Wacholtz WF and Wise RR (2002) Rapid, reversible alterations in spinach thylakoid appression upon changes in light intensity. Plant Cell Environ 25: 421-429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rumpho ME, Summer EJ, Green BJ, Fox TC and Manhart JR (2001) Mollusc/algal chloroplast symbiosis: how can isolated chloroplasts continue to function for months in the cytosol of a sea slug in the absence of an algal nucleus? Zoology 104: 303-312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ryrie IJ, Anderson JM and Goodchild DJ (1980) The role of light harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex in chloro-plast membrane stacking. Cation-induced aggregation of reconstituted proteoliposomes. Eur J Biochem 107: 345-354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sage RF (2004) The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytol 161: 341-370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Salomon M, Fischer K, Fl ügge UI and Soll J (1990) Sequence analysis and protein import studies of an outer chloroplast envelope polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 5778-5782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sardiello M, Tripoli G, Oliva M, Santolamazza F, Moschetti R, Barsanti P, Lanave C, Caizzi R and Caggese C (2003) A comparative study of the porin genes encoding VDAC, a voltage-dependent anion channel protein, in Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Gene 317: 111-115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Scep ánkov á I and Hud ák J (2004) Leaf and tepal anatomy, plastid ultrastructure and chlorophyll content in Galanthus nivalis L and Leucojum aestivum L Plant Syst Evol 243: 211-219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schenk HEA (1990) Cyanophora paradoxa: a short survey. In: Nardon P, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Greneir AM, Margulis L and Smith DC (eds) Endocytobiology IV, 4th Intern Coll Endocytobiol Symbiosis, pp 199-209. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, ParisGoogle Scholar
  140. Schenk HEA (1994) Cyanophora paradoxa: anagenetic model or missing link of plastid evolution. Endocytobiosis Cell Res 10: 87-106Google Scholar
  141. Schroeder JI, Allen GJ, Hugouvieux V, Kwak JM and Waner D (2001) Guard cell signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Molec Biol 52: 627-658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Shiina T, Hayashi K, Ishii N, Morikawa K and Toyoshima Y (2000) Chloroplast tubules visualized in transplastomic plants expressing green fluorescent protein. Plant Cell Physiol 41: 367-371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Shimazaki K and Zeiger E (1985) Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation in isolated guard cell chloroplasts from Vicia faba L. Plant Physiol 78: 211-214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shimoni E, Rav-Hon O, Ohad I, Brumfeld V and Reich Z (2005) Three-dimensional organization of higher-plant chloroplast thylakoid membranes revealed by electron tomography. Plant Cell 17: 2580-2586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Shumway LK and Weier TE (1967) The chloroplast structure of Iojap maize. Amer J Bot 54: 773-780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Siedow JN and Day DA (2000) Chapter 14 Respiration and photorespiration. In: Buchanan BB, Gruissem W and Jones RL (eds) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, pp 676-728. Amer Soc Plant Biol, Rockville, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  147. Solymosi K, Martinez K, Kristof Z, Sundqvist C and Boddi B (2004) Plastid differentiation and chlorophyll biosynthesis in different leaf layers of white cabbage ( Brassica oleracea cv capitata). Physiol Plant 121: 520-529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sprey B and Laetsch WM (1978) Structural analysis of periph-eral reticulum in C4 plant chloroplasts of Portulaca oleracea L. Z Pflanzenphysiol 87: 37-53Google Scholar
  149. Srivastava and Zeiger E (1995) Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves. Plant Cell Environ 18: 813-817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Staehelin LA (2003) Chloroplast structure: from chlorophyll granules to supra-molecular architecture of thylakoid membranes. Photosyn Res 76: 185-196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Staehelin LA and van der Staay GWM (1996) Structure, composition, functional organization and dynamic properties of thylakoid membranes. In: Ort DR and Yocum CF (eds) Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions, vol. 4, pp 11-30. Kluwer Acad Pub, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Steiner JM and L öffelhardt W (2002) Protein import into cyanelles. Trends Plant Sci 7: 72-77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Steinm üller K, Kaling M and Setsche K (1983) In-vitro synthesis of phycobiliproteids and ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxy-lase by nonpoly-adenylated RNA of Cyanidium caldarium and Porphyridium aerugineum. Planta 159: 308-313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stiller JW, Reel DC and Johnson JC (2003) A single origin of plastids revisited: Convergent evolution in organellar genome content. J Phycol 39: 95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tallman G (2004) Are diurnal patterns of stomatal movement the result of alternating metabolism of endogenous guard cell ABA and accumulation of ABA delivered to the apoplast around guard cells by transpiration? J Exptl Bot 55: 1963-1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tenhunen JD, Weber JA, Yocum CS and Gates DM (1976) Development of a photosynthesis model with an emphasis on ecological applications. I. Analysis of a data set describing the Pm surface. Oecologia 26: 101-109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Terashima I and Inoue Y (1985a) Palisade tissue chloroplast and spongy tissue chloroplasts in spinach: biochemical and ultrastructural differences. Plant Cell Physiol 26: 63-75Google Scholar
  158. Terashima I and Inoue Y (1985b) Vertical gradient in photo-synthetic properties of spinach chloroplasts dependent on intra-leaf light environment. Plant Cell Physiol 26: 781-785Google Scholar
  159. Thomson WW and Whatley JM (1980) Development of nongreen plastids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 375-394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ting JTL, Wu SSH, Ratnayake C and Huang AHC (1998) Constituents of the tapetosomes and elaioplasts in Brassica campestris tapetum and their degradation and retention during microsporogenesis. Plant J 16: 541-551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Trepp GB (1999) NADH-Glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Immunocytochemical localization. Plant Physiol 119: 829-837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Utrillas MJ and Alegre L (1997) Impact of water stress on leaf anatomy and ultrastructure in Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers under natural conditions. Intl J Plant Sci 158: 313-324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. van Bel AJE (2003) The phloem, a miracle of ingenuity. Plant Cell Environ 26: 125-149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Voznesenskaya EV, Franceschi VR and Edwards GE (2004) Light-dependent development of single cell C4 photosynthesis in cotyledons of Borszyzowia aralocaspica. Ann Bot 93: 1771-1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Waters MT, Fray RG and Pyke KA (2004) Stromule formation is dependent upon plastid size, plastid differentiation status and the density of plastids within the cell. Plant J 39: 655-667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Weier TE (1938) The structure of the chloroplast. Bot Rev 4: 497-530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wellburn AR and Hampp R (1979) Appearance of photochem-ical function in prothylakoids during plastid development. Biochim Biophys Acta 547: 380-397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Whatley JM (1977) Variations in the basic pathway of chloroplast development. New Phytol 78: 407-420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wildman SG, Hirsch AM, Kirchanski SJ and Spencer D (2004) Chloroplasts in living cells and the string-of-grana concept of chloroplast structure revisited. Photosyn Res 80: 345-352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wise RR (1996) Three-dimensional structure of higher plant chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 111S: 99Google Scholar
  171. Wise RR and Harris JB (1984) The three-dimensional structure of the Cyphomandra betacea chloroplast peripheral reticulum. Protoplasma 119: 222-225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wise RR, McWilliam JR and Naylor AW (1983) A comparative study of low-temperature-induced ultrastructural alterations of three species with differing chilling sensitivities. Plant Cell Environ 6: 525-553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wise RR, Olson AJ, Schrader SM and Sharkey TD (2004) Elec-tron transport is the functional limitation of photosynthesis in field-grown Pima cotton plants at high temperature. Plant Cell Environ 27: 717-724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wolfe GR, Cunningham FX, Durnford D, Green BR and Gantt E (1994) Evidence for a common origin of chloroplasts with light-harvesting complexes of different pigmentation. Nature 367: 566-568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wu SSH, Platt KA, Ratnayake C, Wang T-W, Ting JTL and Huang AHC (1997) Isolation and characterization of neutral-lipid-containing organelles from Brassica napus tapetum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 12711-12716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yamasaki T, Kudoh T, Kamimura Y and Katoh S (1996) A vertical gradient of the chloroplast abundance among leaves of Chenopodium album. Plant Cell Physiol 37: 43-48Google Scholar
  177. Yatsu LY, Jacks TJ and Hensarling TP (1971) Isolation of sphero-somes (oleosomes) from onion, cabbage, and cottonseed tissues. Plant Physiol 48: 675-682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Yeum KJ and Russell RM (2002) Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion. Annu Rev Nutrition 22: 483-504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yu Y, Mu HH, Mu-Forster C and Wasserman BP (1998) Polypeptides of the maize amyloplast stroma. Stromal localization of starch-biosynthetic enzymes and identification of an 81-kilodalton amyloplast stromal heat-shock cognate. Plant Physiol 116: 1451-1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zeeman SC, Smith SM and Smith AM (2004) The breakdown of starch in leaves. New Phytol 163: 247-261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zeiger E, Armond P and Melis A (1980) Fluorescence prop-erties of guard cell chloroplasts: evidence for linear electron transport and light-harvesting pigments of photosystem I and II. Plant Physiol 67: 17-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Zeiger E, Talbott LD, Frechilla S, Srivastava A and Zhu J (2002) The guard cell chloroplast: a perspective for the twenty-first century. New Phytol 153: 415-424Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert R. Wise
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of WisconsinOshkoshUSA

Personalised recommendations