Research and Scholarship
This chapter addresses research and scholarship, which are key responsibilities of both academics and higher education institutions. It attempts to define the characteristics of research and scholarship and their place in higher education systems and institutions, and considers the research role of universities and the differing commitment of universities to research activity. Other topics covered include the role of the state in research and innovation, public funding of research and development (R&D), priority setting in research funding, university research links with industry, and research commercialization.
The discussion concentrates particularly on research-intensive universities, or those major universities with particularly strong commitments to research activities, R&D and Ph.D. training. It also focuses mainly on highly-developed industrial countries, particularly members of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD). At the same time, it should be recognized that research and scholarship are important in all higher education systems, especially to support research training and teaching more broadly, although funding research can be difficult for small, developing nations. Ideally, all nations should maintain some research capacity in order to keep pace with scientific and technological innovations internationally, and to have the ability to access latest developments in key disciplines, as reported in scholarly literature.
KeywordsHigh Education Institution Priority Setting High Education System Industry Funding Research Commercialization
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