Makabayan in the Philippine Basic Education Curriculum: Problems and Prospect for Reforming Student Learning in the Philippines

  • Allan B. I. Bernardo
  • Rizalyn J. Mendoza
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 5)

Abstract

The Philippines' Department of Education undertook a curriculum reform for basic education with the goal of improving student learning to meet the more complex demands of Philippine society amidst globalization. The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum has three key reform themes: (a) the articulation of more complex and higher-level learning goals, (b) the streamlining and integration of learning areas in the curriculum, and (c) the use of creative and innovative teaching approaches to improve student learning. These themes are discussed in the case of Makabayan — a new learning area that integrates several subjects with the goal of helping each Filipino student to develop a healthy personal and national identity. The problems in realizing the curriculum aims are discussed, focusing on the difficulties in fully articulating the ideal curricular elements, constraints in the implementation, and the weak conceptualization of the learning reform in the context of Philippine education.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arao, D. A. (2002, May). State of Education and the Pedagogy of Subjugation. Retrieved on July2005 from http://www.bulatlat.net/news/2–15/2–15-danny.html
  2. Araya, A. A. (2002, June 26). DepEd's New Curriculum in for a Bumpy Ride. Retrieved on July2005 from http://www.cyberdyaryo.com/features/f2002_0626_01.htm.
  3. Bago, A. (2001). Curriculum Development: The Philippine Experience. Manila, Philippines: De La Salle University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2000). Frameworks and contents of Philippine basic education textbooks: Asynthesis and exposition. In F. H. Hornedo, V. A. Miralao & F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.), The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 1–24). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Bernardo, A. B. I., Clemeña, R. M. S. & Prudente, M. S. (2000). The Contexts and Practices of Science and Mathematics Education in the Philippines: Foundations of Responsive Science and Mathematics Teacher Education Programs. Manila, Philippines: Lasallian Institute for Development and Educational Research and Japan International Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
  6. Bernardo, A. B. I. & Garcia, J. A. S. (2006). School improvement in a centralized educational system:The case of Philippine basic education. In J. C. Lee & M. Williams (Eds.), School Improvement:International Perspectives (pp.227–224). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Bernardo, A. B. I., Limjap, A. S., Prudente, M. S. & Roleda, L. S. (2005). Endline Study on Mathand Science Teaching for the SBTP. Manila, Philippines: Lasallian Institute for Development and Educational Research and Japan International Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
  8. Bernardo, A. B. I., Prudente, M. S. & Limjap, A. A. (2003). Exploring Mathematics and Science Teaching in the Philippines. Manila, Philippines: Lasallian Institute for Development and Educational Research and Japan International Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
  9. Bernardo, A. B. I., Reyes, M. L. & Limjap, A. A. (2002). Learning Goals of Elementary Education and Their Measurement: Defining the Learning Goals of Philippine Elementary Education (Final Technical Report). Pasig City, Philippines: Department of Education, Third Elementary Education Project.Google Scholar
  10. Cruz, I. (2002). The Basic Education Curriculum in 17 easy lessons. Manila, Philippines:Anvil Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cruz, I. (2005). Makabayan. Retrieved on July 2005 from http://criticplaywright.blogspot.com/2005/02/ makabayan.html.
  12. Department of Education (2002a). The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. Pasig City, Philippines:DepEd.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Education (2002b). 2002 Basic Education Curriculum: A Challenge to Quality Education. Materials of the Educators Congress. Pasig City, Philippines: DepEd.Google Scholar
  14. Department of Education (2002c). The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (DepEd Order No. 43,S. 2002). Pasig City: DepEd.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Education (2003). Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Rating System. Pasig City,Philippines: DepEd.Google Scholar
  16. Delors, J. (1996). Learning: The Treasure Within. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  17. Diaz, M. (2000). A review of selected textbooks and other instructional media for Sibika at Kultura in elementary schools. In F. H. Hornedo, V. A. Miralao & F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.),The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 25–46). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Haw, G. & Hughes, P. (Eds.) (1998). Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region.Canberra: Australian National Commission for UNESCO.Google Scholar
  19. Hornedo, F. H. (2000). A review of the DECS textbooks for social studies/science in Philippine secondary schools. In F. H. Hornedo, V. A. Miralao & F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.), The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 47–70). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Lazo, L. S. (2000). Reviewing elementary textbooks in technology and home economics. In F. H.Hornedo, V. A. Miralao & F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.), The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 105–119). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Mendoza, R. & Nakayama, S. (2003). Makabayan curriculum for secondary schools in the Philippines: The development of citizenship. Educational Research for Policy & Practice,2, 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miralao, V. A. (2000). A review of the technology and home economics textbooks and curriculum in secondary schools. In F. H. Hornedo, V. A. Miralao & F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.), The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 121–137). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Presidential Commission on Education Reform (2000). Philippine Agenda for Educational Reform: The PCER Report. Pasig City, Philippines: PCER.Google Scholar
  24. Philippine Human Development Network (2000). Philippine Human Development Report.Quality, Relevance and Access in Basic Education. Manila, Philippines: PHDN.Google Scholar
  25. San Andres, E. (2002, February 22). DepEd Set to Implement Basic Education Curriculum Despite Protests from Teachers. Retrieved on July 2005 from http://www.cyberdyaryo.com/ features/ f2002_0222_01.htm.
  26. Sta. Maria, F. P. (2000). A review of DECS-recommended textbooks in physical education, health and music (PEHM) for secondary level. In F. H. Hornedo, V. A. Miralao ' F. P. Sta. Maria (Eds.), The Social and Human Sciences in Philippine Basic Education: A Review of Elementary and High School Textbooks (pp. 71–103). Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Wong-Fernandez, B. & Reyes, J. A. S. (2003). A Review of Research Studies on the Pre-service Teacher Education System in the Philippines. Final Report submitted to the Commission on Higher Education, Technical Panel on Teacher Education, Pasig City, Philippines.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan B. I. Bernardo
    • 1
  • Rizalyn J. Mendoza
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EducationDe La Salle University-ManilaManilaThe Philippines

Personalised recommendations