Advertisement

Ørsted, Ritter, And Magnetochemistry

  • Roberto de Andrade Martins
Part of the Boston Studies In The Philosophy Of Science book series (BSPS, volume 241)

Magnetochemistry is the study of the effect of magnetic fields on chemical reactions. The subject received its name in the early 20th century but the search for such an influence began one century earlier. In the very beginning of the 19th century, after the invention of Volta’s pile and before the discovery of electromagnetism, several researchers were looking for effects of magnets on chemical reactions. One of the reasons behind this search was the evident analogy between electricity (or galvanism) and magnetism. Volta’s pile and magnets have opposite poles that exhibit attraction or repulsion. Were there any other equivalent properties? As Volta’s device could produce chemical effects, several authors expected to find similar influences of magnetism. However, as this paper will attempt to show, there were other grounds for this investigation.

Keywords

Chemical Effect North Pole South Pole Iron Wire Fundamental Force 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [Anonymous]. “Extrait d’une lettre écrite de Munich au Prof. Pictet sur quelques expériences galvanico-magnétiques, faites récémment par Mr. Ritter”. Bibliothèque Britannique, ou Recueil. Sciences et Arts 31: 97–100, 1806.189 Google Scholar
  2. [Anonymous]. “On the influence of magnetism on chemical action”. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 8th. ed. vol. 14, pp. 41–42 Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black, 1857.Google Scholar
  3. Aesch, Alexander Gode-Von. Natural science in German romanticism. New York: AMS Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Arnim, Ludwig Achim von. “Ideen zu einer Theorie des Magneten”. Annalen der Physik 3: 48–64, 1800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnim, Ludwig Achim von. “Bemerkungen über Volta’s Säule”. Annalen der Physik 8: 163–196, 257–284, 1801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashworth, Jr., William B. “Natural history and the emblematic world view”. In Lindberg, David C. and Westman, Robert S. (eds.), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 303–332, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. B. M. “Observations on Mr. Murray’s paper on the decomposition of metallic salts by the magnet”. The Annals of Philosophy [ser. 2] 3: 39–41, 1822 (a).Google Scholar
  8. B. M. An answer to Mr. Murray’s “Reply”. The Annals of Philosophy [2] 3: 384–385, 1822b.Google Scholar
  9. Bequerel, Antoine César. Traité expérimental de l’électricité et du magnétisme et de leurs rapports avec les phénomènes naturels. 7 vols. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1834–1840.Google Scholar
  10. Bequerel, Antoine César and Bequerel, Edmond. Traité d’électricité et de magnétisme et des applications de ces sciences a la chimie, a la physiologie et aux arts. 3 vols. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1855–1856.Google Scholar
  11. Bernoulli, Christian. New galvanic experiments by M. Ritter. Extracted from a letter from M. Christ. Bernoulli. Philosophical Magazine 23: 51–54, 1806.190 Google Scholar
  12. Berzelius, Jöns Jacob. Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der physischen Wissenschaften. 30 vols. Tübingen: H. Laupp, 1822–1851.Google Scholar
  13. Bhatnagar, Shanti Swarupa and Mathur, K. N. Physical principles and applications of magnetochemistry. London: MacMillan, 1935.Google Scholar
  14. Caneva, Kenneth L. Ørsted’s presentation of others’—and his own—work. 2004 (this volume).Google Scholar
  15. Canallo, Tiberius. “Magnetical experiments and observations”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 76: 62–80, 1785; 77: 6–25, 1786.Google Scholar
  16. Christensen, Dan Ch. “The Ørsted-Ritter partnership and the birth of Romantic natural philosophy”. Annals of Science 52: 153–185, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen, Dan Charly. Ørsted’s concept of force. 2004 (this volume).Google Scholar
  18. Cruickshank, William. “Some experiments and observations on galvanic electricity”.191 A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts [series 1] 4: 187–191, 1801.Google Scholar
  19. Dulk, Friedrich Philipp. “Ueber die chemische Einwirkung des Magnetismus”. Archiv für die gesammte Naturlehre 6: 457–467, 1825.Google Scholar
  20. Erdmann, Otto Linné. “Versuche über den angeblichen Einfluss des Magnetismus auf chemische Wirkungen und auf den Krystallisationsprocess”. Journal für Chemie und Physik 192 56: 24–53, 1829a.Google Scholar
  21. Erdmann, Otto Linné. “Expériences sur l’influence présumée du magnétisme sur les effets chimiques et la marche de la cristallisation”. Bibliothèque Universelle des Sciences, des Belles-Lettres et Arts. Sciences et Arts 42: 96–103, 1829b.Google Scholar
  22. Erdmann, Otto Linné. “On the supposed influence of magnetism in the phenomena of chemical combinations and crystallizations”.193 The American Journal of Science and Arts 18: 395–397, 1830.Google Scholar
  23. Erman, Paul. “Beiträge über electrisch-geographische Polarität, permanente electrische Ladung, und magnetisch-chemische Wirkungen”. Annalen der Physik 26: 1–35, 121–145, 1807.Google Scholar
  24. Fresnel, Augustin. “Note sur des essais ayant pour but de décomposer l’eau avec un aimant”. Annales de Chimie et de Physique [series 3] 15: 219–222, 1820.Google Scholar
  25. Gmelin, Leopold. Handbook of chemistry. Transl. Henry Watts. 18 vols. plus index. London: Cavendish Society, 1848–1872.Google Scholar
  26. Granet, Marcel. La Pensée Chinoise. Paris: La Renaissance du Livre, 1934.Google Scholar
  27. Hachette, Jean Nicolas Pierre. “Expérience sur le magnétisme de la pile électrique”. Correspondance sur l’École Impériale Polytechnique, a l’usage des élèves de cette École, 1: 151–153, 1805.Google Scholar
  28. Hachette, Jean Nicolas Pierre. “Sur les expériences électro-magnétiques de MM. Ørsted et Ampère”. Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d’Histoire Naturelle 91: 161–166, 1820.194 Google Scholar
  29. Hacking, Ian. Representing and intervening. Introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  30. Hansteen, Christopher. “Wiederholung und Bestätigung der Versuche durch Hrn. Prof. Hansteen”. Annalen der Physik 70: 239–242, 1822.Google Scholar
  31. Hansteen, Christopher. “Répétition et confirmation des mêmes expériences, par le professeur Hansteen”. Annales de Chimie et de Physique [series 3] 38: 206–208, 1828.Google Scholar
  32. Hermann, Armin. “Unity and metamorphosis of forces (1800–1850): Schelling, Ørsted, and Faraday”. In Doncel, Manuel G., Hermann, Armin, Michel, Louis and Pais, Abraham (eds.). Symmetries in Physics (1600–1980). Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, pp. 51–62 1987.Google Scholar
  33. Hesse, Mary. “Models and analogy in science”. In Edwards, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan & The Free Press, vol. 5, pp. 354–359, 1967.Google Scholar
  34. Humboldt, Frederick Alexander von. Versuche über die gereizte Muskel- und Nervenfaser, nebst Vermuthungen über den chemischen Process des Lebens in der Thier- und Pflanzenwelt. Posen: Decker und Compagnie, 1797. 2 vols.Google Scholar
  35. Humboldt, Frederick Alexander von. Expériences sur le galvanisme et en général sur l’irritation des fibres musculaires et nerveuses. Traduction de l’allemand [by Gruvel or Gravel], publiée, avec des additions, par J. Fr. N. Jadelot. Paris: De l’imprimerie de Didot jeune, an VII, 1799.Google Scholar
  36. Jacobsen, Anja Skaar. Between Naturphilosophie and tradition: Hans Christian Ørsted’s dynamical chemistry.195 Aarhus: University of Aarhus, 2000.Google Scholar
  37. Jacyna, L. S. “Galvanic influences: themes in the early history of British animal electricity”. In Bresadola, Marco and Pancaldi, Giuliano (eds.). Luigi Galvani International Workshop. Proceedings. Bologna: Università di Bologna, pp. 167–185 1999.Google Scholar
  38. Kaiser, Walter. “Symmetries in Romantic physics”. In Doncel, Manuel G., Hermann, Armin, Michel, Louis and Pais, Abraham (eds.). Symmetries in Physics (1600–1980). Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, pp. 77–92 1987.Google Scholar
  39. Kastner, Karl Wilhelm Gottlob. “Zur Geschichte des Galvanismus”. Archiv für die gesammte Naturlehre 6: 442–452, 1825.Google Scholar
  40. Kastner, Karl Wilhelm Gottlob. “Chemische Gegenwirkung des magnetischen Eisens”. Nachtrag zum Vorhergehenden. Archiv für die gesammte Naturlehre 15: 336–344, 1828.Google Scholar
  41. Kirwan, Richard. “Thoughts on magnetism”. A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts [1] 4: 90–94, 133–135, 1801.Google Scholar
  42. Lee, Everett S. and Poust, C. M. “Measurement of surge voltages on transmission lines due to lightning”. General Electric Review 30: 135–145, 1927.Google Scholar
  43. Lehot, C. J. [M. Lehot adresse une lettre relative à l’expérience dont M. Fresnel a rendu compte à l’Académie dans la dernière séance]. Annales de Chimie et de Physique [series 3] 15: 406–408, 1820.Google Scholar
  44. Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph. De novo methodo naturam ac motum fluidi electrici investigandi. Novi Commentarii Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. Commentationes physicae et mathematicae classis, 8: 168–180, 1777.Google Scholar
  45. Lloyd, G. E. R. “Analogy in early Greek thought”. In Wiener, Philip P. (ed.). Dictionary of the history of ideas: studies of selected pivotal ideas. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, vol. 1, pp. 60–63, 1973.Google Scholar
  46. Lodge, Sir Oliver. “The discovery of radioactivity, and its influence on the course of physical science” (Becquerel memorial lecture). Journal of the Chemical Society, 101: 2005–2031, 1912.Google Scholar
  47. Lüdicke, August Friedrich. “Versuche mit einer magnetischen Batterie”. Annalen der Physik 9: 375–378, 1801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lüdicke, August Friedrich. “Fortsetzung der Versuche mit verbundnen Magnetstählen, und ein paar Bemerkungen zu Volta’s Säule”. Annalen der Physik 11: 114–119, 1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lüdicke, August Friedrich. “Ueber den Einfluss des magnetischen Wirkungskreises auf die Krystallisation einiger Salze”. Annalen der Physik 68: 76–83, 1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Martins, Roberto de Andrade. “Jevons e o papel da analogia na arte da descoberta experimental: o caso da descoberta dos raios X e sua investigação pré-teórica”. Episteme. Filosofia e História das Ciências em Revista 3 (6): 222–249, 1998.Google Scholar
  51. Martins, Roberto de Andrade. “Romagnosi and Volta’s pile: Early difficulties in the interpretation of voltaic electricity”. In Bevilacqua, Fabio & Fregonese, Lucio (eds.). Nuova Voltiana: Studies on Volta and his Times. Pavia/Milano: Università degli Studi di Pavia / Ulrico Hoepli, vol. 3, pp. 81–102, 2001.Google Scholar
  52. Maschmann, Hans Henrik. “Einwirkung des Erdmagnetismus auf Auscheidung des Silbers”. Annalen der Physik 70: 234–239, 1822.Google Scholar
  53. Maschmann, Hans Henrik. “Effets du magnétisme terrestre sur la précipitation de l’argent, observés par M. Muschman” [sic]. Annales de Chimie et Physique [series 3] 38: 201–205, 1828a.Google Scholar
  54. Maschmann, Hans Henrik. “Effect of magnetism on the precipitation of silver”. Quarterly Journal of Science 26: 429–431, 1828b.Google Scholar
  55. Meyer, Kirstine. “The scientific life and works of H. C. Ørsted”. In Kirstine Meyer (ed.) Ørsted, H. C. Scientific Papers. Copenhagen, Andr. Fred. Høst & Søn, vol. 1, 1920.Google Scholar
  56. Mottelay, Paul Fleury. Bibliographical History of Electricity and Magnetism. London: Charles Griffin, 1922.Google Scholar
  57. Murray, John. “On the decomposition of metallic salts by the magnet”. London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine 58: 380–382, 1821.Google Scholar
  58. Murray, John. Reply to B. M. The Annals of Philosophy [ser. 2] 3: 121–123, 1822.Google Scholar
  59. Nicholson, William. Scientific news. A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts [series 2]1: 234–236, 1802.Google Scholar
  60. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Expériences sur un appareil à charger d’électricité par la colonne éléctrique de Volta; par M. Ritter, à Jena. Présentées à l’Institut National par J. C. Ørsted, docteur à l’Université de Copenhague”. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 57: 345–368, 1803a (an XII de la République).Google Scholar
  61. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Expériences avec la pile électrique faites para M. Ritter, à Jéna; communiquées par M. Ørsted”. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 57: 401–405, 1803b (an XII de la République).196 Google Scholar
  62. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Expériences sur le magnétisme, par M. Riter, à Jéna, communiquées par Ørsted, docteur à l’université de Copenhagen”. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 57: 406–409, 1803c (an XII de la République).197 Google Scholar
  63. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Ueber der neuesten Fortschritte der Physik. Europa. Eine Zeitschrift”. 1 (2): 20 ff., 1803 (d). Reproduced in Kirstine Meyer (ed.) Ørsted, H. C. Scientific Papers. Copenhagen, Andr. Fred. Høst & Søn, vol. 1, pp. 112–131 1920.Google Scholar
  64. Ørsted, Hans Christian. Ansicht der chemischen Naturgesetze durch die neueren Entdeckungen gewonnen. Berlin: Realschulbuchhandlung, 1812. Reproduced in Kirstine Meyer (ed.) Ørsted, C. H. Naturvidenskabelige Skrifter. København: Andr. Fred. Høst & Søn, vol. 2, pp. 35–169 1920.Google Scholar
  65. Ørsted, Hans Christian. Experimenta circa effectum conflictus electrici in acum magneticam. Hafniae: Schultz, 1820.198 Google Scholar
  66. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Expériences de Ritter, analysées par M. Ørsted”. Annales de Chimie et de Physique [series 3] 38: 197–200, 1828.Google Scholar
  67. Ørsted, Hans Christian. “Thermo-electricity”. In Brewster, D. (ed.). The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 18 vols. Edinburgh, vol. 18, pp. 573–589 1830.Google Scholar
  68. Ørsted, Hans Christian. Selected scientific works. Translated and edited by Karen Jelved, Andrew D. Jackson, and Ole Knudsen. Introduction by Andrew D. Wilson. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  69. Oken, Lorentz. Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie. Jena: Friedrich Frommann, 1831.Google Scholar
  70. Ostwald, Wilhelm. Elektrochemie. Ihre Geschichte und Lehre. Leipzig: Von Veit, 1896.Google Scholar
  71. Pera, Marcello. The ambiguous frog: the Galvani-Volta controversy on animal electricity. Trad. J. Mandelbaum. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  72. Rendu, Louis. “Observations qui tendent a prouver que la cristallisation de tous le corps est un phénomène électrique”. Bibliothèque Universelle des Sciences, Belles Lettres et Arts. (Sciences et Arts) 38: 304–317; 39: 58–72, 1928a.Google Scholar
  73. Rendu, Louis. “Influence du magnétisme sur les actions chimiques”. Annales de Chimie et de Physique [series 3] 38: 196–197, 1828b.Google Scholar
  74. Ridolfi, C. Lettera all’editore dell’Antologia. Antologia 7: 498–501, 1822.Google Scholar
  75. Ritter, Johann Wilhelm. “Versuche und Bermerkungen über den Galvanismus der Voltaischen Batterie”. Annalen der Physik 7: 431–484, 1801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ritter, Johann Wilhelm. “Auszüge aus Briefen verschiednen Inhalts an der Herausgeber. 1. Von Herrn J. W. Ritter”. Annalen der Physik 15: 106–110, 1803a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ritter, Johann Wilhelm. “Einiges über Nordlichter und deren Periode, und über den Zusammenhang des Nordlichts mit dem Magnetimus, und des Magnetimus mit den Feuerkugeln, dem Blitze und der Electricität”. Annalen der Physik 15: 206–226, 1803b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ritter, Johann Wilhelm. Das electrische System der Körper. Leipzig: C. H. Reclam, 1805.Google Scholar
  79. Ritter, Johann Wilhelm. Fragmente aus dem Nachlass eines jungen Physikers. Leipzig: Infel Verlag, 1938.Google Scholar
  80. Ruhland, Reinhold Ludwig. “Vermischte Bemerkungen electrischen und magnetischen Inhalts”. Journal für Chemie und Physik 11: 16–25, 1814.Google Scholar
  81. Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von. Ideas for a philosophy of nature. Translated by Errol E. Harris and Peter Heath. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  82. Schweigger, Johann Salomo Christoph. “Ueber Cohäsion, in Abhängigkeit von krystall-elektrischer Anziehung”. Journal für Chemie und Physik 44: 79–86, 1825.Google Scholar
  83. Selwood, Pierce Wilson. Magnetochemistry. New York: Interscience, 1943; 2nd. ed. New York: Interscience, 1956.Google Scholar
  84. Shanahan, Timothy. Kant, “Naturphilosophie, and Ørsted’s discovery of electromagnetism: a reassessment”. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 20: 287–305, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Snelders, H. A. M. “The influence of the dualistic system of Jakob Joseph Winterl (1732–1809) on the German Romantic era”. Isis 61: 231–239, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stauffer, Robert C. “Speculation and experiment in the background of Ørsted’s discovery of electromagnetism”. Isis 48: 33–50, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Strickland, Stuart. “Galvanic disciplines: the boundaries, objects, and identities of experimental science in the era of Romanticism”. History of Science 33: 449–468, 1995.Google Scholar
  88. Sue, Pierre. Histoire du galvanisme et analyse des différens ouvrages publiés sur cette découverte, depuis son origine jusqu’à ce jour. 2 vols. Paris: Bernard, an X, 1802.Google Scholar
  89. Van Swinden, J. H. Analogie de l’éléctricité et du magnétisme ou récueil de mémoires, couronnés par l’Académie de Bavière. 3 vols., La Haye/Paris: La Compagnie/Veuve Duchesne, 1785.Google Scholar
  90. Volta, Alessandro. “On the electricity excited by the mere contact of conducting substances of different kinds”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 90: 403–431, 1800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wedekind, Edgar. Magnetochemie. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1911.Google Scholar
  92. Wetlzar, Gustav. “Ueber den elektrodynamischen Zustand, welchen Eisen und Stahl durch Berührung mit saurer salpetersaurer Silberslösung oder reiner Ammoniakflüssigkeit erlangen”. Journal für Chemie und Physik 56: 206–227, 1829.Google Scholar
  93. Wiedeman, Gustav. Die Lehre von der Elektricität. 3 vols. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1882–1883.Google Scholar
  94. Wilson, Andrew D. Introduction. In Ørsted, Hans Christian. Selected scientific works. pp. xv–xl Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  95. Yelin, Ritter von. “Ueber den Zusammenhang der Electricität und des Magnetismus”. Annalen der Physik 66: 395–411, 1820.Google Scholar
  96. Zantedeschi, Francesco. “Nota sopra l’azione della calamita e di alcuni fenomeni chimici”.199 Biblioteca Italiana o sia Giornale di Letteratura, Scienze ed Arti 53: 398–402, 1829.Google Scholar
  97. Zantedeschi, Francesco. Relazione delle principali scoperte magneto elettriche (Opuscoli Fisici di Varii Autori, vol. 1, n. 36), Verona: Antonelli, 1834.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto de Andrade Martins
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations