Advertisement

Seagrasses, Fish, and Fisheries

  • Bronwyn M. Gillanders

Abstract

Seagrass meadows have extremely high primary and secondary productivity and support a great abundance and diversity of fish and invertebrates. A number of commercially and recreationally important species (including both fish and invertebrates) have been linked to seagrass at some stage of their life cycle, although few such species use seagrass throughout their life. Non-commercial species within seagrass may be an important food source for commercial species (forming trophic linkages). In addition, some species that do not inhabit seagrass may derive benefit from seagrass by way of exported seagrass detritus or resident/transient species that move out of seagrass (some of these topics are dealt with elsewhere in this volume: e.g. Heck and Orth, Chapter 22, Kenworthy et al., Chapter 25 and Bell et al., Chapter 26).

Keywords

Blue Crab Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Seagrass Meadow Seagrass Habitat Pink Shrimp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acosta CA and Butler MJ (1997) Role of mangrove habitat as a nursery for juvenile spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in Belize. Mar Freshwater Res 48: 721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson EE (1989) Economic benefits of habitat restoration: Seagrass and the Virginia hard-shell blue crab fishery. N Am J Fisheries Manag 9: 140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrivillaga A and Baltz DM (1999) Comparison of fishes and macroinvertebrates on seagrass and bare-sand sites on Guatemala's Atlantic coast. Bull Mar Sci 65: 301–319Google Scholar
  4. Beck MW, Heck KL, Able KW, Childers DL, Eggleston DB, Gillanders BM, Halpern B, Hays CG, Hoshino K, Minello TJ, Orth RJ, Sheridan PF and Weinstein MP (2001) The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. Bioscience 51: 633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell JD and Pollard DA (1989) Ecology of fish assemblages and fisheries associated with seagrasses. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA (eds) Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australasian Region, pp 565–609. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell JD and Westoby M (1986a) Abundance of macrofauna in dense seagrass is due to habitat preference, not predation. Oecologia 68: 205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell JD and Westoby M (1986b) Importance of local changes in leaf height and density to fish and decapods associated with seagrasses. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 104: 249–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell JD and Westoby M (1986c) Variation in seagrass height and density over a wide spatial scale: Effects on common fish and decapods. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 104: 275–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell JD, Steffe AS and Westoby M (1985) Artificial seagrass: How useful is it for field experiments on fish and macroinvertebrates. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 90: 171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell JD, Steffe AS and Westoby M (1988) Location of seagrass beds in estuaries: Effects on associated fish and decapods. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 122: 127–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell JD, Westoby M and Steffe AS (1987) Fish larvae settling in seagrass: Do they discriminate between beds of different leaf density? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 111: 133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell JD and Worthington DG (1993) Links between estuaries and coastal rocky reefs in the lives of fishes from south-eastern Australia. In: Battershill CB, Schiel DR, Jones GP, Cresse RG and MacDiarmid AB (eds) Second International Temperate Reef Symposium, pp 85–91. Auckland, New Zealand. NIWA Marine, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell SS and Hicks GRF (1991) Marine landscapes and faunal recruitment: A field test with seagrasses and copepods. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 73: 61–68Google Scholar
  14. Bell SS, Brooks RA, Robbins BD, Fonseca MS and Hall MO (2001) Faunal response to fragmentation in seagrass habitats: Implications for seagrass conservation. Biol Conserv 100: 115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bell SS, Hall MO, Soffian S and Madley K (2002) Assessing the impact of boat propeller scars on fish and shrimp utilizing seagrass beds. Ecol Appl 12: 206–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bender DJ, Contreras TA and Fahrig L (1998) Habitat loss and population decline: A meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology 79: 517–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beukers JS, Jones GP and Buckley RM (1995) Use of implant microtags for studies on populations of small reef fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 125: 61–66Google Scholar
  18. Blaber SJM, Cyrus DP, Albaret JJ, Ching CV, Day JW, Elliott M, Fonseca MS, Hoss DE, Orensanz J, Potter IC and Silvert W (2000) Effects of fishing on the structure and functioning of estuarine and nearshore ecosystems. ICES J Mar Sci 57: 590–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bologna PAX and Heck KL (1999) Differential predation and growth rates of bay scallops within a seagrass habitat. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 239: 299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bologna PAX and Heck KL (2000) Impacts of seagrass habitat architecture on bivalve settlement. Estuaries 23: 449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brewer DT, Blaber SJM, Salini JP and Farmer MJ (1995) Feeding ecology of predatory fishes from Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, with special reference to predation on penaeid prawns. Est Coast Shelf Sci 40: 577–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown-Peterson NJ, Peterson MS, Rydene DA and Eames RW (1993) Fish assemblages in natural versus well-established recolonized seagrass meadows. Estuaries 16: 177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Butler A and Jernakoff P (1999) Seagrass in Australia. Strategic review and development of an R&D plan. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  24. Cambridge ML and McComb AJ (1984) The loss of seagrass in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. I. The time course and magnitude of seagrass decline in relation to industrial development. Aquat Bot 20: 229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campana SE (1999) Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: Pathways, mechanisms and applications. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188: 263–297Google Scholar
  26. Cancemi G, De Falco G and Pergent G (2003) Effects of organic matter input from a fish farming facility on a Posidonia oceanica meadow. Est Coast Shelf Sci 56: 961–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Connolly R, Jenkins G and Loneragan N (1999) Seagrass dynamics and fisheries sustainability. In: Butler A and Jernakoff P (eds) Seagrass in Australia. Strategic Review and Development of an R&D Plan, pp 25–64. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  28. Connolly RM (1994a) A comparison of fish assemblages from seagrass and unvegetated areas of a southern Australian estuary. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 45: 1033–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Connolly RM (1994b) Removal of seagrass canopy: Effects on small fish and their prey. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 184: 99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Connolly RM (1997) Differences in composition of small, motile invertebrate assemblages from seagrass and unvegetated habitats in a southern Australian estuary. Hydrobiologia 346: 137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connolly RM, Dalton A and Bass DA (1997) Fish use of an inundated saltmarsh flat in a temperate Australian estuary. Aust J Ecol 22: 222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Costa MJ, Santos CI and Cabral HN (2002) Comparative analysis of a temperate and a tropical seagrass bed fish assemblages in two estuarine systems: The Mira estuary (Portugal) and the Mussulo Lagoon (Angola). Cah Biol Mar 43: 73–81Google Scholar
  33. Davenport SR and Bax NJ (2002) A trophic study of a marine ecosystem off southeastern Australia using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 59: 514–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dayton PK, Thrush SF, Agardy MT and Hofman RJ (1995) Environmental effects of marine fishing. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshwater Ecosyst 5: 205–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Delgado O, Ruiz J, Perez M, Romero J and Ballesteros E (1999) Effects of fish farming on seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) in a Mediterranean bay: Seagrass decline after organic loading cessation. Oceanologica Acta 22: 109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DiBacco C and Levin LA (2000) Development and application of elemental fingerprinting to track the dispersal of marine invertebrate larvae. Limnol Oceanogr 45: 871–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Duarte CM (1999) Seagrass ecology at the turn of the millennium: Challenges for the new century. Aquat Bot 65: 7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eckrich CE and Holmquist JG (2000) Trampling in a seagrass assemblage: Direct effects, response of associated fauna, and the role of substrate characteristics. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 201: 199–209Google Scholar
  39. Edgar GJ and Shaw C (1995a) The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia. I. Species richness, size-structure and production of fishes in Western Port, Victoria. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194: 53–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Edgar GJ and Shaw C (1995b) The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia. II. Diets of fishes and trophic relationships between fishes and benthos at Western Port, Victoria. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194: 83–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Edwards JW, Edyvane KS, Boxall VA, Hamann M and Soole KL (2001) Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 42: 389–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eggleston DB, Etherington LL and Elis WE (1998a) Organism response to habitat patchiness: Species and habitat-dependent recruitment of decapod crustaceans. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 223: 111–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eggleston DB, Grover JJ and Lipcius RN (1998b) Ontogenetic diet shifts in nassau grouper: Trophic linkages and predatory impact. Bull Mar Sci 63: 111–126Google Scholar
  44. Eggleston DB, Elis WE, Etherington LL, Dahlgren P and Posey MH (1999) Organism responses to habitat fragmentation and diversity: Habitat colonization by estuarine macrofauna. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 236: 107–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fairweather PG (1999) Determining the ‘health' of estuaries: Priorities for ecological research. Aust J Ecol 24: 441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ferrell DJ and Bell JD (1991) Differences among assemblages of fish associated with Zostera capricorni and bare sand over a large spatial scale. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 72: 15–24Google Scholar
  47. Ferrell DJ, McNeill SE, Worthington DG and Bell JD (1993) Temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of fish associated with the seagrass Posidonia australis in south-eastern Australia. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 44: 881–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fonseca DM, Thayer GW, Chester AJ and Foltz C (1984) Impact of scallop harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows: Implications for management. N Am J Fisheries Manag 4: 286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fonseca DM, Kenworthy WJ, Colby DR, Rittmaster KA and Thayer GW (1990) Comparisons of fauna among natural and transplanted eelgrass Zostera marina meadows: Criteria for mitigation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 65: 251–264Google Scholar
  50. Fonseca MS, Meyer DL and Hall MO (1996) Development of planted seagrass beds in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. II. Faunal components. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 132: 141–156Google Scholar
  51. Fry B (1981) Natural stable carbon isotope tag traces Texas shrimp migrations. Fishery Bull 79: 337–345Google Scholar
  52. Fry B (1983) Fish and shrimp migrations in the northern Gulf of Mexico analyzed using stable C, N and S isotope ratios. Fishery Bull 81: 789–801Google Scholar
  53. Fry B, Mumford PL and Robblee MB (1999) Stable isotope studies of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Burkenroad) migrations on the southwestern Florida shelf. Bull Mar Sci 65: 419–430Google Scholar
  54. Gillanders BM (1997) Patterns of abundance and size structure in the blue groper Achoerodus viridis (Pisces: Labridae): Evidence of links between estuaries and coastal reefs. Environ Biol Fishes 49: 153–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gillanders BM (2002) Connectivity between juvenile and adult fish populations: Do adults remain near their recruitment estuaries? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 240: 215–223Google Scholar
  56. Gillanders BM and Kingsford MJ (1996) Elements in otoliths may elucidate the contribution of estuarine recruitment to sustaining coastal reef populations of a temperate reef fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 141: 13–20Google Scholar
  57. Gillanders BM, Able KW, Brown JA, Eggleston DB and Sheridan PF (2003) Evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats for mobile marine fauna: An important component of nurseries. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 247: 281–295Google Scholar
  58. Goldberg R, Phelan B, Pereira J, Hagan S, Clark P, Bejda A, Calabrese A, Studholme A and Able KW (2002) Variability in habitat use by young-of-the-year winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, in three Northeastern U.S. estuaries. Estuaries 25: 215–226Google Scholar
  59. Gray CA, McElligott DJ and Chick RC (1996) Intra-and interestuary differences in assemblages of fishes associated with shallow seagrass and bare sand. Mar Freshwater Res 47: 723–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gray CA, Chick RC and McElligott DJ (1998) Diel changes in assemblages of fishes associated with shallow seagrass and bare sand. Est Coast Shelf Sci 46: 849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenway M (1995) Trophic relationships of macrofauna within a Jamaican seagrass meadow and the role of the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck). Bull Mar Sci 56: 719–736Google Scholar
  62. Griffiths SP (2001a) Diel variation in the seagrass ichthyofaunas of three intermittently open estuaries in south-eastern Australia: Implications for improving fish diversity assessments. Fisheries Manag Ecol 8: 123–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Griffiths SP (2001b) Factors influencing fish composition in an Australian intermittently open estuary. Is stability salinitydependent? Est Coast Shelf Sci 52: 739–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guidetti P (2000) Differences among fish assemblages associated with nearshore Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds, rocky-algal reefs and unvegetated sand habitats in the Adriatic Sea. Est Coast Shelf Sci 50: 515–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Guidetti P and Bussotti S (2002) Effects of seagrass canopy removal on fish in shallow Mediterranean seagrass (Cymodecea nodosa and Zostera noltii) meadows: A local-scale approach. Mar Biol 140: 445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gunderson DR, Armstrong DA, Shi Y-B and McConnaughey RA (1990) Patterns of estuarine use by juvenile English sole (Parophyrys vetulus) and dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Estuaries 13: 59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haddon M (2001) Modelling and quantitative methods in fisheries. Chapman and Hall, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  68. Hair CA, Bell JD and Kingsford MJ (1994) Effects of position in the water column, vertical movement and shade on settlement of fish to artificial habitats. Bull Mar Sci 55: 434–444Google Scholar
  69. Hamer PA and Jenkins GP (1996) Larval supply and shortterm recruitment of a temperate zone demersal fish, the King George whiting, Sillaginodes punctata Cuvier and Valenciennes, to an embayment in south-eastern Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 208: 197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hammerstrom K, Sheridan P and McMahon G (1998) Potential for seagrass restoration in Galveston Bay, Texas. Tex J Sci 50: 35–50Google Scholar
  71. Hanekom N and Baird D (1984) Fish community structures in Zostera and non-Zostera regions of the Kromme estuary, St Francis Bay. S Afr J Zool 19: 295–301Google Scholar
  72. Hannan JC and Williams RJ (1998) Recruitment of juvenile marine fishes to seagrass habitat in a temperate Australian estuary. Estuaries 21: 29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Haywood MDE, Vance DJ and Loneragan NR (1995) Seagrass and algal beds as nursery habitats for tiger prawns (Penaeus semisulcatus and P. esculentus) inatropical Australian estuary. Mar Biol 122: 213–223Google Scholar
  74. Heck KL and Thoman TA (1981) Experiments on predator-prey interactions in vegetated aquatic habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 53: 125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Heck KL and Thoman TA (1984) The nursery role of seagrass meadows in the upper and lower reaches of the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 7: 70–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Heck KL and Weinstein MP (1989) Feeding habits of juvenile reef fishes associated with Panamanian seagrass meadows. Bull Mar Sci 45: 629–636Google Scholar
  77. Heck KL and Wilson KA (1987) Predation rates on decapod crustaceans in latitudinally separated seagrass communities: A study of spatial and temporal variation using tethering techniques. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 107: 87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Heck KL, Hays CG and Orth RJ (2003) A critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 253: 123–136Google Scholar
  79. Heck KL, Nadeau DA and Thomas R (1997) The nursery role of seagrass beds. Gulf Mex Sci 15: 50–54Google Scholar
  80. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP and Keough MJ (2000a) Evaluating the impact of predation by fish on the assemblage structure of fishes associated with seagrass (Heterozostera tasmanica) (Martens ex Ascherson) den Hartog, and unvegetated sand habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 255: 153–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP and Keough MJ (2000b) Variability in abundances of fishes associated with seagrass habitats in relation to diets of predatory fishes. Mar Biol 136: 725–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP and Keough MJ (2001) Spatial and temporal variability in the effects of fish predation on macrofauna in relation to habitat complexity and cage effects. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224: 231–250Google Scholar
  83. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP and Keough MJ (2002) Variability in the numbers of post-settlement King George whiting (Sillaginidae: Sillaginodes punctata, Cuvier) in relation to predation, habitat complexity and artificial cage structure. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 268: 13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hixon MA (1991) Predation as a process structuring coral reef fish communities. In: Sale PF (ed) The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs, pp 475–508. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  85. Hobday DK, Officer RA and Parry GD (1999) Changes to demersal fish communities in Port Phillip Bay, Australia, over two decades, 1970–1991. Mar Freshwater Res 50: 397–407Google Scholar
  86. Hobson KA (1999) Tracing origins and migration of wildlife using stable isotopes: A review. Oecologia 120: 314–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hovel KA (2003) Habitat fragmentation in marine landscapes: Relative effects of habitat cover and configuration on juvenile crab survival in California and North Carolina seagrass beds. Biol Conserv 110: 401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hovel KA and Lipcius RN (2001) Habitat fragmentation in a seagrass landscape: Patch size and complexity control blue crab survival. Ecology 82: 1814–1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hovel KA and Lipcius RN (2002) Effects of seagrass habitat fragmentation on juvenile blue crab survival and abundance. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 271: 75–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hughes JE, Deegan LA, Wyda JC, Weaver MJ and Wright A (2002) The effects of eelgrass habitat loss on estuarine fish communities of southern New England. Estuaries 25: 235–249Google Scholar
  91. Irlandi EA (1994) Large-and small-scale effects of habitat structure on rates of predation: How percent coverage of seagrass affects rates of predation and siphon nipping on an infaunal bivalve. Oecologia 98: 176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Irlandi EA (1997) Seagrass patch size and survivorship of an infaunal bivalve. Oikos 78: 511–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Irlandi EA and Peterson CH (1991) Modification of animal habitat by large plants: Mechanisms by which seagrasses influence clam growth. Oecologia 87: 307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Irlandi EA, Ambrose WG and Orlando BA (1995) Landscape ecology and the marine environment: How spatial configuration of seagrass habitat influences growth and survival of the bay scallop. Oikos 72: 307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Irlandi EA and Crawford MK (1997) Habitat linkages: The effect of intertidal saltmarshes and adjacent subtidal habitats on abundance, movement, and growth of an estuarine fish. Oecologia 110: 222–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Irlandi EA, Orlando BA and Ambrose WG (1999) Influence of seagrass habitat patch size on growth and survival of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 235: 21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jackson EL, Rowden AA, Attrill MJ, Bossey SJ and Jones MB (2001) The importance of seagrass beds as a habitat for fishery species. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 39: 269–303Google Scholar
  98. Jackson G and Jones GK (1999) Spatial and temporal variation in nearshore fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages from a temperate Australian estuary over a decade. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 182: 253–268Google Scholar
  99. Jenkins GP and Black KP (1994) Temporal variability in settlement of a coastal fish (Sillaginodes punctata) determined by low-frequency hydrodynamics. Limnol Oceanogr 39: 1744–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jenkins GP and Sutherland CR (1997) The influence of habitat structure on nearshore fish assemblages in a southern Australian embayment: Colonisation and turnover rate of fishes associated with artificial macrophyte beds of varying physical structure. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 218: 103–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jenkins GP and Wheatley MJ (1998) The influence of habitat structure on nearshore fish assemblages in a southern Australian embayment: Comparison of shallow seagrass, reefalgal and unvegetated sand habitats, with emphasis on their importance to recruitment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 221: 147–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jenkins GP and Hamer PA (2001) Spatial variation in the use of seagrass and unvegetated habitats by post-settlement King George whiting (Percoidei: Sillaginidae) in relation to meiofaunal distribution and macrophyte structure. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224: 219–229Google Scholar
  103. Jenkins GP, Edgar GJH, May MA and Shaw C (1993) Ecological basis for parallel declines in seagrass habitat and catches of commercial fish in Western Port Bay, Victoria. In: Hancock DA (ed) Sustainable Fisheries Through Sustaining Fish Habitat, Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop, Victor Harbour, SA, 12–13 August. Bureau of Resource Sciences Proceedings, Australian Government Publishing service, pp 124–136. CanberraGoogle Scholar
  104. Jenkins GP, Wheatley MJ and Poore AGB (1996) Spatial variation in recruitment, growth, and feeding of postsettlement King George whiting, Sillaginodes punctata, associated with seagrass beds of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 53: 350–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Jenkins GP, Black KP, Wheatley MJ and Hatton DN (1997a) Temporal and spatial variability in recruitment of a temperate, seagrass-associated fish is largely determined by physical processes in the pre-and post-settlement phases. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 148: 23–35Google Scholar
  106. Jenkins GP, May HMA, Wheatley MJ and Holloway MG (1997b) Comparison of fish assemblages associated with seagrass and adjacent unvegetated habitats of Port Phillip Bay and Corner Inlet, Victoria, Australia, with emphasis on commercial species. Est Coast Shelf Sci 44: 569–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jenkins GP, Welsford DC, Keough MJ and Hamer PA (1998) Diurnal and tidal vertical migration of presettlement King George whiting Sillaginodes punctata in relation to feeding and vertical distribution of prey in a temperate bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 170: 239–248Google Scholar
  108. Jordan F, Bartolini M, Nelson C, Patterson PE and Soulen HL (1997) Risk of predation affects habitat selection by the pinfish Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 208: 45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kendrick GA, Aylward MJ, Hegge BJ, Cambridge ML, Hillman K, Wyllie A and Lord DA (2002) Changes in seagrass coverage in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia between 1967 and 1999. Aquat Bot 73: 75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kennedy BP, Folt CL, Blum JD and Chamberlain CP (1997) Natural isotope markers in salmon. Nature 387: 766–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Koutsikopoulos C, Dorel D and Desaunay Y (1995) Movement of sole (Solea solea) inthe Bay of Biscay: Coastal environment and spawning migration. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 75: 109–126Google Scholar
  112. Laegdsgaard P and Johnson C (2001) Why do juvenile fish utilise mangrove habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 257: 229–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Laegdsgaard P and Johnson CR (1995) Mangrove habitats as nurseries: Unique assemblages of juvenile fish in subtropical mangroves in eastern Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 126: 67–81Google Scholar
  114. Larkum AWD and West RJ (1990) Long-term changes of seagrass meadows in Botany Bay, Australia. Aquat Bot 37: 55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lipcius RN and Van Engel WA (1990) Blue crab population dynamics in Chesapeake Bay: Variation in abundance (York River, 1972–1988) and stock recruit functions. Bull Mar Sci 46: 180–194Google Scholar
  116. Loneragan NR, Bunn SE and Kellaway DM (1997) Are mangroves and seagrasses sources of organic carbon for penaeid prawns in a tropical Australian estuary? A multiple stableisotope study. Mar Biol 130: 289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Loneragan NR, Kenyon RA, Staples DJ, Poiner IR and Conacher CA (1998) The influence of seagrass type on the distribution and abundance of postlarval and juvenile tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus and P. semisulcatus) in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 228: 175–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lubbers L, Boynton WR and Kemp WM (1990) Variations in structure of estuarine fish communities in relation to abundance of submersed vascular plants. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 65: 1–14Google Scholar
  119. MacArthur LD and Hyndes GA (2001) Differential use of seagrass assemblages by a suite of Odacid species. Est Coast Shelf Sci 52: 79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. MacDonald CM (1992) Fluctuations in seagrass habitats and commercial fish catches in Westernport Bay and the Gippsland Lakes, Victoria. In: Hancock DA (ed) Recruitment Processes, pp 192–201. Australian Government Publishing Service, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  121. Matheson RE, Camp DK, Sogard SM and Bjorgo KA (1999) Changes in seagrass-associated fish and crustacean communities on Florida Bay mud banks: The effects of recent ecosystem changes? Estuaries 22: 534–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McLaughlin PA, Treat SAF, Thorhaug A and Lemaitre R (1983) Arestored seagrass (Thalassia) bed and its animal community. Environ Conserv 10: 247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McNeill SE and Fairweather PG (1993) Single large or several small marine reserves? An experimental approach with seagrass fauna. J Biogeogr 20: 429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McNeill SE, Worthington DG, Ferrell DJ and Bell JD (1992) Consistently outstanding recruitment of five species of fish to a seagrass bed in Botany Bay, NSW. Aust J Ecol 15: 360–367Google Scholar
  125. Melville AJ and Connolly RM (2003) Spatial analysis of stable isotope data to determine primary sources of nutrition for fish. Oecologia 136: 499–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Meng L, Gray C, Taplin B and Kupcha E (2000) Using winter flounder growth rates to assess habitat quality in Rhode Island's coastal lagoons. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 201: 287–299Google Scholar
  127. Meyer DL, Fonseca MS, Murphey PL, McMichael RH, Byerly MM, Lacroix MW, Whitfield PE and Thayer GW (1999) Effects of live-bait shrimp trawling on seagrass beds and fish bycatch in Tampa Bay, Florida. Fishery Bull 97: 193–199Google Scholar
  128. Micheli F and Peterson CH (1999) Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements. Conserv Biol 13: 869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Middleton MJ, Bell JD, Burchmore JJ, Pollard DA and Pease BC (1984) Structural differences in the fish communities of Zostera capricorni and Posidonia australis seagrass meadows in Botany Bay, New South Wales. Aquat Bot 18: 89–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Miller MJ and Able KW (2002) Movements and growth of tagged young-of-the-year Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus L.) in restored and reference marsh creeks in Delaware Bay, USA. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 267: 15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Milton DA and Chenery SP (2001) Sources and uptake of trace metals in otoliths of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 264: 47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Minello TJ (1993) Chronographic tethering: A technique for measuring prey survival time and testing predation pressure in aquatic habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 101: 99–104Google Scholar
  133. Minello TJ, Able KW, Weinstein MP and Hays CG (2003) Salt marshes as nurseries for nekton: Testing hypotheses on density, growth, and survival through meta-analysis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 246: 39–59Google Scholar
  134. Moncreiff CA and Sullivan MJ (2001) Trophic importance of epiphytic algae in subtropical seagrass beds: Evidence from multiple stable isotope analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215: 93–106Google Scholar
  135. Nagelkerken I, Dorenbosch M, Verberk WCEP, Cocheret de la Moriniere E and van der Velde G (2000a) Day-night shifts of fishes between shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay, with emphasis on the nocturnal feeding of Haemulidae and Lutjanidae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 194: 55–64Google Scholar
  136. Nagelkerken I, Dorenbosch M, Verberk WCEP, Cocheret de la Moriniere E and van der Velde G (2000b) Importance of shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay for juvenile coral reef fishes: Patterns in biotope association, community structure and spatial distribution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202: 175–192Google Scholar
  137. Nagelkerken I, Kleijnen S, Klop T, van den Brand RACJ, Cocheret de la Moriniere E and van der Velde G (2001) Dependence of Caribbean reef fishes on mangroves and seagrass beds as nursery habitats: A comparison of fish faunas between bays with and without mangroves/seagrass beds. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 214: 225–235Google Scholar
  138. Nagelkerken I, Roberts CM, van der Velde G, Dorenbosch M, Van Riel MC, Cocheret de la Moriniere E and Nienhuis PH (2002) How important are mangroves and seagrass beds for coral-reef fish? The nursery hypothesis tested on an island scale. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 244: 299–305Google Scholar
  139. Nagelkerken I and van derVelde G (2002) Do non-estuarine mangroves harbour higher densities of juvenile fishes than adjacent shallow-water and coral reef habitats in Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245: 191–204Google Scholar
  140. Olney JE and Boehlert GW (1988) Nearshore ichthyoplankton associated with seagrass beds in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 45: 33–43Google Scholar
  141. Orth RJ (1992) A perspective on plant-animal interactions in seagrasses: Physical and biological determinants influencing plant and animal abundance, In: John DM, Hawkins SJ and Price JH (eds) Plant–Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos, pp 147–164. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  142. Orth RJ, Heck KL and van Montfrans J (1984) Faunal communities in seagrass beds: A review of the influence of plant structure and prey characteristics on predator–prey relationships. Estuaries 7: 339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Orth RJ and Moore KA (1983) Chesapeake Bay: An unprecedented decline in submerged aquatic vegetation. Science 222: 51–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Orth RJ and van Montfrans J (1987) Utilisation of a seagrass meadow and tidal marsh creek by blue crabs Callinectes sapidus. I. Seasonal and annual variations in abundance with emphasis on post-settlement juveniles. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 41: 283–294Google Scholar
  145. Orth RJ and van Montfrans J (1990) Utilization of marsh and seagrass habitats by early stages of Callinectes sapidus: A latitudinal perspective. Bull Mar Sci 46: 126–144Google Scholar
  146. Orth RJ and van Montfrans J (2002) Habitat quality and prey size as determinants of survival in post-larval and early juvenile instars of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 231: 205–213Google Scholar
  147. Parrish JD (1989) Fish communities of interacting shallow-water habitats in tropical oceanic regions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 58: 143–160Google Scholar
  148. Peterman RM (1990) Statistical power analysis can improve fisheries research and management. Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 47: 2–15Google Scholar
  149. Peterson BJ and Fry B (1987) Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Annu Rev Ecol Systematics 18: 293–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Peterson CH, Summerson HC and Fegley SR (1987) Ecological consequences of mechanical harvesting of clams. Fishery Bull 85: 281–298Google Scholar
  151. Peterson BJ, Thompson KR, Cowan JH and Heck KL (2001) Comparison of predation pressure in temperate and subtropical seagrass habitats based on chronographic tethering. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224: 77–85Google Scholar
  152. Petrik R, Levin PS, Stunz GW and Malone J (1999) Recruitment of Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus: Do postsettlement processes disrupt or reinforce initial patterns of settlement? Fishery Bull 97: 954–961Google Scholar
  153. Phelan BA, Goldberg R, Bejda AJ, Pereira J, Hagan S, Clark P, Studholme AL, Calabrese A and Able KW (2000) Estuarine and habitat-related differences in growth rates of young of-the-year winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and tautog (Tautoga onitis) in three northeastern US estuaries. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 247: 1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pinto L and Punchihewa NN (1996) Utilisation of mangroves and seagrasses by fishes in the Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka. Mar Biol 126: 333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pulich WM and White WA (1991) Decline of submerged vegetation in the Galveston Bay system: Chronology and relationships to physical processes. J Coastal Res 7: 1125–1138Google Scholar
  156. Rapport DJ, Costanza R, and McMichael AJ (1998) Assessing ecosystem health. Trends Ecol Evol 13: 397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rasmussen E (1977) The wasting disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina) and its effect on environmental factors and fauna. In: McRoy CP and Helfferich C (eds) Seagrass Ecosystems: A Scientific Perspective, pp 1–51. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  158. Robbins BD and Bell SS (1994) Seagrass landscapes: A terrestrial approach to the marine subtidal environment. Trends Ecol Evol 9: 301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Robblee MB and Zieman JC (1984) Diel variation in the fish fauna of a tropical seagrass feeding ground. Bull Mar Sci 34: 335–345Google Scholar
  160. Robblee MB, Barber TR, Carlson PR, Durako MJ, Fourqurean JW, Muehlstein LK, Porter D, Yarbro LA, Zieman RT and Zieman JC (1991) Mass mortality of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay (USA). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 71: 297–299Google Scholar
  161. Robertson AI (1980) The structure and organization of an eelgrass fish fauna. Oecologia 47: 76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Robertson AI and Duke NC (1987) Mangroves as nursery sites: Comparisons of the abundance and species composition of fish and crustraceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia. Mar Biol 96: 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rooker JR and Holt SA (1997) Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Patterns of distribution and growth. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 158: 139–149Google Scholar
  164. Rooker JR, Holt GJ and Holt SA (1998a) Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: Is early-life survival enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar Biol 131: 145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rooker JR, Holt SA, Soto MA and Holt GJ (1998b) Postsettlement patterns of habitat use by sciaenid fishes in subtropical seagrass meadows. Estuaries 21: 318–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rozas LP and Minello TJ (1998) Nekton use of salt marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in a south Texas (USA) estuary. Bull Mar Sci 63: 481–501Google Scholar
  167. Ruckelshaus MH and Hays CG (1998) Conservation and management of species in the sea. In: Fiedler PL and Kareiva PM (eds) Conservation Biology for the Coming Decade, pp 112–156. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  168. Ruello NV (1975) Geographical distribution, growth and breeding migration of the eastern Australian king prawn Penaeus plebejus Hess. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 26: 343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ruello NV (1977) Migration and stock studies on the Australian school prawn Metapenaeus macleayi. Mar Biol 41: 185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ruiz JM, Perez M and Romero J (2001) Effects of fish farm loadings on seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) distribution, growth and photosynthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 42: 749–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ryer CH, van Montfrans J and Moody KE (1997) Cannibalism, refugia and the molting blue crab. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 147: 77–85Google Scholar
  172. Salita JT, Ekau W and Saint-Paul U (2003) Field evidence on the influence of seagrass landscapes on fish abundance in Bolinao, northern Philippines. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 247: 183–195Google Scholar
  173. Sanchez-Jerez P and Ramos-Espla AA (1996) Detection of environmental impacts by bottom trawling on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows: Sensitivity of fish and macrobenthic communities. J Aquat Ecosyst Health 5: 239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sanchez-Jerez P and Ramos-Espla A (2000) Changes in fish assemblages associated with the deployment of an antitrawling reef in seagrass meadows. Trans Am Fisheries Soc 129: 1150–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Scott LC, Boland JW, Edyvane KS and Jones GK (2000) Development of a seagrass-fish habitat model-I: A seagrass residency index for economically important species. Environmetrics 11: 541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Seddon S, Connolly RM and Edyvane KS (2000) Large-scale seagrass dieback in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Aquat Bot 66: 297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sheaves M (1995) Large lutjanid and serranid fishes in tropical estuaries: Are they adults or juveniles. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 129: 31–40Google Scholar
  178. Sheridan PF (1992) Comparative habitat utilization by estuarine macrofauna within the mangrove ecosystem of Rookery Bay, Florida. Bull Mar Sci 50: 21–39Google Scholar
  179. Sheridan P (1997) Benthos of adjacent mangrove, seagrass and non-vegetated habitats in Rookery Bay, Florida, USA. Est Coast Shelf Sci 44: 455–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sheridan P and Hays C (2003) Are mangroves nursery habitat for transient fishes and decapods? Wetlands 23: 449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Sheridan P, McMahon G, Conley G, Williams A and Thayer G (1997) Nekton use of macrophyte patches following mortality of turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum, in shallow waters of Florida Bay (Florida, USA). Bull Mar Sci 61: 801–820Google Scholar
  182. Sheridan P, Henderson C and McMahon G (2003) Fauna of natural seagrass and transplanted Halodule wrightii (shoalgrass) beds in Galveston Bay, Texas. Restor Ecol 11: 139–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sogard SM (1989) Colonization of artificial seagrass by fishes and decapod crustaceans: Importance of proximity to natural eelgrass. J Exp MarBiol Ecol 133: 15–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sogard SM (1992) Variability in growth rates of juvenile fishes in different estuarine habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 85: 35–53Google Scholar
  185. Sogard SM and Able KW (1991) A comparison of eelgrass, sea lettuce macroalgae, and marsh creeks as habitats for epibenthic fishes and decapods. Est Coast Shelf Sci 33: 501–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sogard SM and Able KW (1994) Diel variation in immigration of fishes and decapod crustaceans to artificial seagrass habitat. Estuaries 17: 622–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sogard SM, Powell GVN and Holmquist JG (1987) Epibenthic fish communities on Florida Bay banks: Relations with physical parameters and seagrass cover. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40: 25–39Google Scholar
  188. Sogard SM, Powell GVN and Holmquist JG (1989a) Spatial distribution and trends in abundance of fishes residing in seagrass meadows on Florida Bay mudbanks. Bull Mar Sci 44: 179–199Google Scholar
  189. Sogard SM, Powell GVN and Holmquist JG (1989b) Utilization by fishes of shallow, seagrass-covered banks in Florida Bay: 1. Species composition and spatial heterogeneity. Environ Biol Fishes 24: 53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sogard SM, Powell GVN and Holmquist JG (1989c) Utilization by fishes of shallow, seagrass-covered banks in Florida Bay: 2. Diel and tidal patterns. Environ Biol Fishes 24: 81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Steffe AS, Westoby M and Bell JD (1989) Habitat selection and diet in two species of pipefish from seagrass: Sex differences. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 55: 23–30Google Scholar
  192. Stunz GW and Minello TJ (2001) Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 260: 13–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. StunzGW, Minello TJ and Levin PS (2002) Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 238: 227–236Google Scholar
  194. Swearer SE, Caselle JE, Lea DW and Warner RR (1999) Larval retention and recruitment in an island population of a coralreef fish. Nature 402: 799–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Tanner JE (2003) Patch shape and orientation influences on seagrass epifauna are mediated by dispersal abilities. Oikos 100: 517–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Thayer GW and Phillips RC (1977) Importance of eelgrass beds in Puget Sound. Mar Fisheries Rev 39: 18–22Google Scholar
  197. Thayer GW, Murphey PL and LaCroix MW (1994) Responses of plant communities in western Florida Bay to the die-off of seagrasses. Bull Mar Sci 54: 718–726Google Scholar
  198. Thomas BE and Connolly RM (2001) Fish use of subtropical saltmarshes in Queensland, Australia: Relationships with vegetation, water depth, and distance onto the marsh. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 209: 275–288Google Scholar
  199. Thorrold SR, Latkoczy C, Swart PK and Jones CM (2001) Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation. Science 291: 297–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Thresher RE, Nichols PD, Gunn JS, Bruce BD and Furlani DM (1992) Seagrass detritus as the basis of a coastal planktonic food chain. Limnol Oceanogr 37: 1754–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Tupper M and Boutilier RG (1995) Effects of habitat on settlement, growth, and postsettlement survival of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fisheries Aquat Sci 52: 1834–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Turner MG (1989) Landscape ecology: The effect of pattern on process. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20: 171–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Turner SJ, Hewitt JE, Wilkinson MR, Morrisey DJ, Thrush SF, Cummings VJ and Funnell G (1999) Seagrass patches and landscapes: The influence of wind-wave dynamics and hierarchical arrangements of spatial structure on macrofaunal seagrass communities. Estuaries 22: 1016–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Underwood AJ (1996) Detection, interpretation, prediction and management of environmental disturbances: Some roles for experimental marine ecology. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 200: 1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Vanderklift MA and Jacoby CA (2003) Patterns in fish assemblages 25 years after seagrass loss. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 247: 225–235Google Scholar
  206. Villard MA, Trzcinski MK and Merriam G (1999) Fragmentation effects on forest birds: Relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy. Conserv Biol 13: 774–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wiens JA (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Funct Ecol 3: 385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Weinstein MP and Heck KL (1979) Ichthyofauna of seagrass meadows along the Caribbean coast of Panama and in the Gulf of Mexico: Composition, structure and community ecology. Mar Biol 50: 97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Worthington DG, Westoby M and Bell JD (1991) Fish larvae settling in seagrass: Effects of leaf density and an epiphytic alga. Aust J Ecol 16: 289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Worthington DG, Ferrell DJ, McNeill SE and Bell JD (1992) Effects of the shoot density of seagrass on fish and decapods: Are correlation evident over larger spatial scales? Mar Biol 112: 139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wyda JC, Deegan LA, Hughes JE and Weaver MJ (2002) The response of fishes to submerged aquatic vegetation complexity in two ecoregions of the Mid-Atlantic bight: Buzzards Bay and Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 25: 86–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zacherl DC, Manriquez PH, Paradis G, Day RW, Castilla JC, Warner RR, Lea DW and Gaines SD (2003) Trace elemental fingerprinting of gastropod statoliths to study larval dispersal trajectories. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 248: 297–303Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bronwyn M. Gillanders
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Seas Ecology Laboratories, Darling Building DP418, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations