• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Colonization of the Nicaraguan Pacific coast was undertaken by Spaniards from Panama, beginning in 1523. France and Britain, however, and later the USA, all tried to play a colonial or semi-colonial role in Nicaragua. Nicaragua became an independent republic in 1838 but its independence was often threatened by US intervention. Between 1910 and 1930 the country was under almost continuous US military occupation.


Presidential Election Parliamentary Election Military Occupation Chief Town National Liberation Front 
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Further Reading

  1. Baracco, Luciano, Nicaragua—The Imagining of a Nation—From Nineteenth-Century Liberals to Twentieth-Century Sandinistas. Algora Publishing, New York, 2005Google Scholar
  2. Cruz, Consuelo, Political Culture and Institutional Development in Costa Rica and Nicaragua: World-making in the Tropics. CUP, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dijkstra, G., Industrialization in Sandinista Nicaragua: Policy and Party in a Mixed Economy. Boulder (CO), 1992Google Scholar
  4. Horton, Lynn, Peasants in Arms: War and Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, 1979–94. Ohio Univ. Press, 1998Google Scholar
  5. Jones, Adam, Beyond the Barricades: Nicaragua and the Struggle for the Sandinista Press, 1979–1998. Ohio Univ. Press, Athens (OH), 2002Google Scholar
  6. Woodward, R. L., Nicaragua. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994Google Scholar
  7. National Statistical Office: Dirección General de Estadística y Censos, Managua.Google Scholar
  8. Website (Spanish only):

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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