• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


In 1920 Azerbaijan was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic. From 1922, with Georgia and Armenia, it formed the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. Conflict with Armenia over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh escalated in 1988, leading to violent expulsions of Armenians in Azerbaijan and Azeris in Armenia. In ‘Black January’ 1990 Soviet tanks moved in to react to rioting in Baku, and over 100 civilians were killed. War broke out between the two countries in 1992, with a ceasefire agreed in 1994. The dispute over territory remains unsettled, although negotiations in Florida in 2001 promised a peaceful solution. In 1990 it adopted a declaration of republican sovereignty and on 18 Aug. 1991 the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan declared independence. Under the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, elected in Oct. 1993, parliament ratified association with the CIS on 20 Sept. 1993. A treaty of friendship and co-operation was signed with Russia on 3 July 1997 and Aliyev was re-elected in Oct. 1998, although the administration of the election was criticized by international observers.


Prime Minister Presidential Election Parliamentary Election Soviet Socialist Republic Deputy Prime Minister 
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Further Reading

  1. Azerbaijan. A Country Study. R. A. Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish, Montana, 2004Google Scholar
  2. Chorbajian, Levon, The Making of Nagorno-Karabagh: From Secession to Republic. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De Waal, Thomas, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York Univ. Press, 2003Google Scholar
  4. Swietochowski, T., Russia and a Divided Azerbaijan. Columbia Univ. Press, 1995Google Scholar
  5. Van Der Leeuw, C., Azerbaijan. Saint Martin’s Press, New York, 1999Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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