• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


There is evidence of pastoralism and the cultivation of cereals in southwest Egypt from as early as 7000 BC. Settlements grew along the Nile valley, though Upper and Lower Egypt only united around 3100 BC under Pharoah Menes. The subsequent Early Dynastic period was marked by flourishing trade with Sinai, the Levant and as far north as the Black Sea. The astonishing artistic and intellectual developments of the Old Kingdom began during the IVth dynasty (2575–2465 BC), when sun-worship took hold and temples and pyramids, including those at Giza, were constructed. Egypt was governed from the city of Memphis, south of modern Cairo, reaching its height during the VIth dynasty before losing power to local rulers from around 2200 BC.


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Further Reading

  1. CAPMAS, Statistical Year Book, Arab Republic of Egypt Google Scholar
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  10. Khalil, Ashraf, Liberation Square: Inside the Egyptian Revolution and the Rebirth of a Nation. 2012Google Scholar
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  12. Malek, J. (ed.) Egypt. 1993Google Scholar
  13. Osman, Tarek, Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to Mubarak. Revised ed. 2011Google Scholar
  14. Raymond, André, Cairo. 2001Google Scholar
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  16. Rubin, Barry, Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. 2002Google Scholar
  17. Turner, Barry, Suez 1956: the Inside Story of the First Oil War. 2007Google Scholar
  18. Vatikiotis, P. J., History of Modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. 1991Google Scholar
  19. National Statistical Office: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), Salah Salam Street, Nasr City, Cairo.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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