• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Records date back to 9 BC, when the Romans subdued the Celts to establish Pannonia. From the 5th century both Romans and Celts retreated before attacks from the Huns who were followed by the Avars in the 7th century and the Magyars in the 9th. It was then that the name On ogur (‘ten arrows’) was adopted for the country that was to become Hungary. The founding date of Hungary is put at 896 afer which Árpád, leader of one of the Magyar tribes, forged a dynasty which ruled Hungary until 1301. Forays into Italy, Germany, the Balkans and Spain ended afer the Magyars were defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I at the battle of Lechfeld in 955, and the Ostmark (Austria) was returned to Germanic control.


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office. Statisztikai Évkönyv. Annual since 1871.— Magyar Statisztikai Zsebkönyv. Annual.—Statistical Yearbook.—Statistical Handbook of Hungary.—Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.Google Scholar
  2. Bozóki, A., et al., (eds.) Post-Communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. 1992Google Scholar
  3. Burawoy, M. and Lukács, J., The Radiant Past: Ideology and Reality in Hungary’s Road to Capitalism. 1992Google Scholar
  4. Cox, T. and Furlong, A. (eds.) Hungary: the Politics of Transition. 1995Google Scholar
  5. Geró, A., Modern Hungarian Society in the Making: the Unfnished Experience; translated from Hungarian. 1995Google Scholar
  6. Kontler, László, A History of Hungary. 2002Google Scholar
  7. Mitchell, K. D. (ed.) Political Pluralism in Hungary and Poland: Perspectives on the Reforms. 1992Google Scholar
  8. Molnár, Miklós, A Concise History of Hungary. 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Rose-Ackerman, Susan, From Elections to Democracy: Building Accountable Government in Hungary and Poland. 2007Google Scholar
  10. Schiemann, John W., The Politics of Pact-Making: Hungary’s Negotiated Transition to Democracy in Comparative Perspective. 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Szekely, I. P., Hungary: an Economy in Transition. 1993Google Scholar
  12. National library: Széchényi Library, Budavári Palota F épület, 1827 Budapest. Director General: István Monok.Google Scholar
  13. National Statistical Office: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal/Central Statistical Ofce, Keleti Károly u. 5/7, H-1024 Budapest. President: Gabriella Vukovich.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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