• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


By the 1st millennium BC the Diakhi (Taokhi) and the Qolha (Colchis) tribal groups had developed bronze casting. A two-state confederation emerged as early as the 6th century BC, with Colchis (Egrisi) in the west and Kartli (Iberia) in the east. The Greeks established Black Sea colonies from the 6th century BC, including Phasis (present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchire) and Dioscuras (Sukhumi). Parnavaz I ruled a united Kartli (or Georgia) from his citadel of Armaztsikhe from c. 302–237 BC.


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Further Reading

  1. Areshidze, Irakly, Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition. 2007Google Scholar
  2. Brook, S., Claws of the Crab: Georgia and Armenia in Crisis. 1992Google Scholar
  3. Coppieters, Bruno and Legvold, Robert, (eds.) Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution. 2005Google Scholar
  4. Gachechiladze, R., The New Georgia: Space, Society, Politics. 1995Google Scholar
  5. Mikaberidze, Alexander, Historical Dictionary of Georgia. 2007Google Scholar
  6. Nasmyth, P., Georgia: a Rebel in the Caucasus. 1992Google Scholar
  7. Nodia, Ghia and Scholtbach, Alvaro Pinto, The Political Landscape of Georgia: Political Parties, Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects. 2007Google Scholar
  8. Pelkmans, Mathijs, Defending the Border: Identity, Religion, and Modernity in the Republic of Georgia. 2006Google Scholar
  9. Suny, R. G., The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  10. Wheatley, Jonathan, Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution: Delayed Transition in the Former Soviet Union. 2005Google Scholar
  11. National Statistical Office: National Statistics Service of Georgia, 4 Beijing str., Tbilisi 0115.Google Scholar
  12. Coppieters, Bruno, Darchiashvili, David and Akaba, Natella, Federal Practice: Exploring Alternatives for Georgia and Abkhazia. 2001Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2011

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  • Barry Turner

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