• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


There is evidence of pastoralism and the cultivation of cereals in southwest Egypt from as early as 7000 BC. Settlements grew along the Nile valley, though Upper and Lower Egypt only united around 3100 BC under Pharoah Menes. The subsequent Early Dynastic period was marked by flourishing trade with Sinai, the Levant and as far north as the Black Sea. The astonishing artistic and intellectual developments of the Old Kingdom began during the IVth dynasty (2575–2465 BC), when sun-worship took hold and temples and pyramids, including those at Giza, were constructed. Egypt was governed from the city of Memphis, south of modern Cairo, reaching its height during the Vlth dynasty before losing power to local rulers from around 2200 BC.


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Further Reading

  1. CAPMAS, Statistical Year Book, Arab Republic of Egypt Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Khalek, G., Stabilization and Adjustment in Egypt. 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, Raymond William, Islam without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists. 2006Google Scholar
  4. Daly, M. W. (ed.) The Cambridge History of Egypt. 2 vols. 2000Google Scholar
  5. El-Mikawy, Noha and Handoussa, Heba, (eds.) Institutional Reform and Economic Development in Egypt. 2004Google Scholar
  6. Hopwood, D., Egypt: Politics and Society 1945–1990. 3rd ed. 1992Google Scholar
  7. Ibrahim, Fouad N. and Ibrahim, Barbara, Egypt: An Economic Geography. 2001Google Scholar
  8. King, J. W., Historical Dictionary of Egypt. 2nd ed. Revised by A. Goldschmidt. 1995Google Scholar
  9. Malek, J. (ed.) Egypt 1993Google Scholar
  10. Raymond, André, Cairo. 2001Google Scholar
  11. Rodenbeck, M., Cairothe City Victorious. 1998Google Scholar
  12. Rubin, Barry, Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. 2002Google Scholar
  13. Vatikiotis, P. J., History of Modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. 1991Google Scholar
  14. National Statistical Office: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), Salah Salam Street, Nasr City, Cairo.Google Scholar
  15. Website: Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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