United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Remains of Stone Age settlements of hunters and fishermen suggest that the first inhabitants crossed from the low countries of Continental Europe on one or more wide causeways. By the time their successors had turned to subsistence farming, the land links to the continent had disappeared under the sea. These offshore islands created at the ending of the Ice Age shared, with nearside Europe, a slowly evolving agricultural economy using bronze and iron tools. The Ancient Britons were Celts, whose ancestors had migrated from the valleys of the Rhine, the Rhône and the Danube. Having asserted their command of northern Italy and France (Gaul), the Celts established a bridgehead to Ireland and thence to Britain. By 600 BC they were the undisputed dominant force of Western Europe and were to remain so until challenged by the Romans.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Office for National Statistics titles are published by Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. The Stationery Office (TSO) publishes most other government publications.Google Scholar
  2. Annual Abstract of Statistics.—Monthly Digest of Statistics.—Social Trends.—Regional Trends. Google Scholar
  3. Central Office of Information. The Monarchy. 1992 Directory of British Associations. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  4. Bache, Ian and Jordan, Andrew, The Europeanization of British Politics. 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beech, Matt and Lee, Simon, (eds.) Ten Years of New Labour. 2008Google Scholar
  6. Black, Jeremy, A History of the British Isles. 2nd ed. 2002Google Scholar
  7. Bogdanor, Vernon, Devolution in the United Kingdom. 1999.—The New British Constitution. 2009 Google Scholar
  8. Bourke, Richard, Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas. 2003Google Scholar
  9. Cairncross, A., The British Economy Since 1945: Economic Policy and Performance, 1945–1995. 2nd ed. 1995Google Scholar
  10. Casey, Terence, (ed.) The Blair Legacy: Politics, Policy, Governance, and Foreign Afairs. 2009Google Scholar
  11. Davies, Norman, The Isles: A History. 1999Google Scholar
  12. Dunleavy, Patrick, Cowley, Philip, Heffernan, Richard and Hay, Colin (eds.) Developments in British Politics 8. 2006Google Scholar
  13. Gascoigne, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Britain. 1994Google Scholar
  14. Harbury, C. D. and Lipsey, R. G., Introduction to the UK Economy. 4th ed. 1993Google Scholar
  15. Irwin, J. L., Modern Britain: an Introduction. 3rd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  16. Kellner, Peter, Democracy: 1,000 Years in Pursuit of British Liberty. 2009Google Scholar
  17. Leese, Peter, Britain Since 1945. 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leventhal, F. M. (ed.) 20th-Century Britain: an Encyclopedia. 1995Google Scholar
  19. Marquand, David, Britain Since 1918: The Strange Career of British Democracy. 2008Google Scholar
  20. Marr, A., Ruling Britannia: the Failure and Future of British Democracy. 1995Google Scholar
  21. McCormick, John, Contemporary Britain. 2nd ed. 2007Google Scholar
  22. Neumann, Peter R., Britain’s Long War: British Strategy in the Northern Ireland Conflict, 1969–98. 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oakland, John, British Civilization: an Introduction. 6th ed. 2003 Oxford History of the British Empire. 2 vols. 1999Google Scholar
  24. Palmer, A. and Palmer, V., The Chronology of British History. 1995 Penguin History of Britain. 9 vols. 1996Google Scholar
  25. Robbins, Keith, A Bibliography of British History 1914–1989. 1996Google Scholar
  26. Sked, A. and Cook, C., Post-War Britain: a Political History. 4th ed. 1993Google Scholar
  27. Speck, W. A., A Concise History of Britain, 1707–1975. 1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wall, Stephen, A Stranger in Europe: Britain and the EU from Tatcher to Blair. 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Other more specialized titles are listed under TERRITORY AND POPULATION; CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT; ARMY; NAVY; BANKING AND FINANCE; ELECTRICITY; TRADE UNIONS; RELIGION; and WELFARE, above. See also Further Reading in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Google Scholar
  30. National Statistical Office: UK Statistics Authority, Statistics House, Tredegar Park, Newport, Gwent, NP10 8XG. National Statistician: Jil Matheson.Google Scholar
  31. See Further Reading in United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  32. Scottish Executive. Scottish Economic Report. Twice yearly—Scottish Abstract of Statistics. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, A., et al., Politics and Society in Scotland. 1996Google Scholar
  34. Bruce, D., The Mark of the Scots. 1997Google Scholar
  35. Dennistoun, R. and Linklater, M. (eds.) Anatomy of Scotland. 1992Google Scholar
  36. Devine, T. M. and Finlay, R. J. (eds.) Scotland in the 20th Century. 1996Google Scholar
  37. Harvie, C., Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics, 1707–1994. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  38. Hunter, J., A Dance Called America: The Scottish Highlands, the United States and Canada. 1997Google Scholar
  39. Keay, J. and J., Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland: The Story of a Nation. 2000Google Scholar
  40. Macleod, J., Highlanders: A History of the Gaels. 1997Google Scholar
  41. Magnusson, M., Scotland: The Story of a Nation. 2000Google Scholar
  42. McCafrey, J. F., Scotland in the Nineteenth Century. 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGarvey, Neil and Cairney, Paul, (eds.) Scottish Politics: An Introduction. 2008Google Scholar
  44. Mitchell, James, Governing Scotland. 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Statistical Office: Room 1N.04, St Andrew’s House, Regent Road, Edinburgh, EH1 3DG.Google Scholar
  46. Website:
  47. National Assembly. Digest of Welsh Statistics. National Statistics. Great Britain (annual)Google Scholar
  48. Andrews, Leighton, Wales Says Yes. The Inside Story of the Yes for Wales Referendum Campaign. 1999Google Scholar
  49. Davies, J., History of Wales. 1993Google Scholar
  50. History of Wales. vols. 3, 4 (1415–1780). 2nd ed. 1993Google Scholar
  51. Jenkins, G. H., The Foundations of Modern Wales 1642–1780. 1988.—The Welsh Language and its Social Domains 1801–1911: A Social History of the Welsh Language. 2000Google Scholar
  52. Jones, G. E., Modern Wales: a Concise History. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  53. May, J. (ed.) Reference Wales. 1994Google Scholar
  54. Morgan, K. and Mungham, G., Redesigning Democracy. The Making of the Welsh Assembly. 2000Google Scholar
  55. Statistical Office: Statistical Directorate, Welsh Assembly Government, Cathays Park, Cardif CF10 3NQ.Google Scholar
  56. Adshead, Maura and Tonge, Jonathan, Politics in Ireland: Convergence and Divergence in a Two-Polity Island. 2009Google Scholar
  57. Aughey, A. and Morrow, D. (eds.) Northern Ireland Politics. 1996Google Scholar
  58. Bardon, Jonathan, A History of Ulster. 1992Google Scholar
  59. Bloomfield, D., Peacemaking Strategies in Northern Ireland. 1998Google Scholar
  60. Bourke, Richard, Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas. 2003Google Scholar
  61. Bow, P. and Gillespie, G., Northern Ireland: a Chronology of the Troubles, 1968–1993. 1993Google Scholar
  62. Dixon, Paul, Northern Ireland: The Politics of War and Peace. 2nd ed. 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fay, Marie-Térèse, Morrisey, Mike and Smyth, Marie, Northern Ireland’s Troubles. 1999Google Scholar
  64. Fletcher, Martin, Silver Linings: Travels Around Northern Ireland. 2000Google Scholar
  65. Hennessey, T., A History of Northern Ireland 1920–96. 1998Google Scholar
  66. Kennedy-Pipe, C., The Origins of the Present Troubles in Northern Ireland. 1997Google Scholar
  67. Keogh, D. and Haltzel, M. (eds.) Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation. 1994Google Scholar
  68. Loughlin, James, The Ulster Question Since 1945. 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (eds.) Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images. 1995Google Scholar
  70. Neumann, Peter R., Britain’s Long War: British Strategy in the Northern Ireland Conflict, 1969–98. 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Patterson, Henry, Ireland Since 1939: The Persistence of Conflict. 2006Google Scholar
  72. Rose, Peter, How the Troubles Came to Northern Ireland. 1999Google Scholar
  73. Ruane, J. and Todd, J., The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. 1997Google Scholar
  74. Tonge, Jonathan, The New Northern Irish Politics? 2004Google Scholar
  75. Statistical Office: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA), McAuley House, 2–14 Castle St., Belfast BT1 1SA.Google Scholar
  76. Additional information is available from: Economic Affairs Division, Illiam Dhone House, 2 Circular Rd, Douglas, Isle of Man, IM1 1PQ. Email: economics@gov.imGoogle Scholar
  77. Isle of Man Digest of Economic and Social Statistics. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  78. Belchem, J. (ed.) A New History of the Isle of Man, Volume V—The Modern Period 1830–1999. 2000Google Scholar
  79. Kermode, D. G., Ofshore Island Politics: The Constitutional and Political Development of the Isle of Man in the Twentieth Century. 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moore, A. W., A History of the Isle of Man. 1900; reprinted 1992Google Scholar
  81. Solly, M., Government and Law in the Isle of Man. 1994Google Scholar
  82. Manx National Heritage publishes a series of booklets including Early Maps of the Isle of Man, The Art of the Manx Crosses, The Ancient & Historic Monuments of the Isle of Man, Pre-historic Sites of the Isle of Man.Google Scholar
  83. Balleine, G. R., A History of the Island of Jersey. Rev. ed. 1981Google Scholar
  84. States of Jersey Library: Halkett Place, St Helier.Google Scholar
  85. Statistical Office: Statistics Unit, P.O. Box 140, Cyril Le Marquand House, The Parade, St Helier, Jersey, JE4 8QT.Google Scholar
  86. Website:
  87. Marr, L. J., A History of Guernsey. 1982Google Scholar
  88. Statistical Office: Policy and Research Unit, P. O. Box 43, Sir Charles Frossard House, La Charroterie, St. Peter Port, GY4 6EF.Google Scholar
  89. Website:
  90. Coysh, V., Alderney. 1974Google Scholar
  91. Hathaway, S., Dame of Sark: An Autobiography. 1961Google Scholar
  92. Petty, C. L., Anguilla: Where there’s a Will, there’s a Way. 1984.—A Handbook History of Anguilla. 1991.Google Scholar
  93. Statistical Office: Anguilla Statistics Department, PO Box 60, The Valley, Anguilla.Google Scholar
  94. Website:
  95. Government Department of Statistics. Bermuda Facts and Figures. Annual.Google Scholar
  96. Zuill, W. S., The Story of Bermuda and Her People. 2nd ed. 1992Google Scholar
  97. Compendium of Statistics of the Cayman Islands, 2007. 2008Google Scholar
  98. Cayman Islands Annual Report 2004–2005. 2005Google Scholar
  99. Statistical Office: The Information Centre, Economics & Statistics Office, Government Administration Building, Grand Cayman, KY1–9000.Google Scholar
  100. Gough, B., The Falkland Islands/Malvinas: the Contest for Empire in the South Atlantic. 1992Google Scholar
  101. Morris, D. S. and Haigh, R. H., Britain, Spain and Gibraltar, 1940–90: the Eternal Triangle. 1992Google Scholar
  102. Statistical Office: Statistics Office, 99 Harbours Walk, The New Harbours, Gibraltar.Google Scholar
  103. Fergus, H. A., Montserrat: History of a Caribbean Colony. 1994Google Scholar
  104. Statistical Office: Department of Economic Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Finance, South Base, Grand Turk.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations