• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Archaeological evidence shows human settlement dating back several thousand years. The Khoisan people were early inhabitants of the region, followed from around AD 500 by the Bantu-speaking Gokomere. Trading civilizations flourished from the 9th century, culminating in the Mwene Mutapa Empire (Empire of Great Zimbabwe) from the 15th century. Its stronghold was a fortified stone town known as Great Zimbabwe (‘houses of stone’), which was founded around 1000 and had a population of up to 18,000 at its peak. During the 16th and 17th centuries the area came under partial control by the Portuguese until the Shona people defeated them in 1693 and established the Rozwi Empire. This fell to the migrating Ndebele (Matabele) in 1834.


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office. Monthly Digest of Statistics.Google Scholar
  2. Hatchard, J., Individual Freedoms and State Security in the African Context: the Case of Zimbabwe. Ohio Univ. Press, 1993Google Scholar
  3. Hill, Geoff, What Happens After Mugabe? Can Zimbabwe Rise From the Ashes? Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2005Google Scholar
  4. Meredith, Marti., Mugabe: Power andPlunder inZimbabwe. Public Affairs, New York, 2002Google Scholar
  5. Morris-Jones, W. H., (ed.) From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. London, 1980Google Scholar
  6. Skålnes, T., The Politics of Economic Reform in Zimbabwe: Continuity and Change in Development. London, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Verrier, A., The Road to Zimbabwe, 1890–1980. London, 1986Google Scholar
  8. Weiss, R., Zimbabwe and the New Elite. London, 1994Google Scholar
  9. National Statistical Office: Central Statistical Office, POB 8063, Causeway, Harare.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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