Vatican City State
The history of the Vatican as a papal residence in Rome dates from the 5th century, following the construction of St Peter’s Basilica by Emperor Constantine I. For many centuries the Popes bore temporal sway over much of the Italian peninsula. In 1860, following prolonged civil unrest, Victor Emmanuel’s army seized the Papal States, leaving only Rome and surrounding coastal regions under papal control. When Rome was captured in 1871 and declared the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, papal temporal power was brought to an end. On 11 Feb. 1929 a treaty between the Italian Government and the Vatican recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See in the city of the Vatican.
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