• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Neolithic farmers established settlements in the Zagros mountains, in the west of modern Iran, from 6000 BC. From around 2700 BC the southwestern region of Khuzestan was inhabited by Elamite societies, a formative influence on the first Persian empire, established by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. His Achaemenian dynasty lasted until around 320 BC and was ruled from Persepolis. Persia was subsequently controlled by the Parthian and Sassanian dynasties, during which the Zoroastrian religion took hold. Arabians arriving in the 7th century AD spread the Islamic faith. Their armies defeated the Sassanians at Nahavand in 641, ushering in a period of control by Arab caliphs and, from the 10th century, Seljuk Turks. Persia came under the control of Ghengis Khan’s Mongol armies in the 1220s and was then ruled by Timur from 1370.


Nuclear Weapon Private Bank Islamic Republic Zagros Mountain Spiritual Leader 
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Further Reading

  1. Abdelkhah, Fariba, Being Modern in Iran. Columbia Univ. Press, 1999Google Scholar
  2. Abrahamian, E., Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic. Univ. of California Press, 1993Google Scholar
  3. Amuzegar, J., Iran’s Economy Under the Islamic Republic. London, 1992Google Scholar
  4. Ansari, Ali M., Modern Iran Since 1921: The Pahlavis and After. Pearson Longman, Harlow, 2003Google Scholar
  5. Coughlin, Con, Khomeini’s Ghost: Iran Since 1979. Pan Macmillan, London, 2009Google Scholar
  6. Daneshvar, P., Revolution in Iran. London, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehteshami, A., After Khomeini: the Iranian Second Republic. London, 1994Google Scholar
  8. Ehteshami, A. and Zweiri, M., Iran and the Rise of its Neoconservatives: The Politics of Tehran’s Silent Revolution. London, 2007Google Scholar
  9. Fuller, G. E., Centre of the Universe: Geopolitics of Iran. Boulder (Colo.), 1992Google Scholar
  10. Goodarzi, Jubin, Syria and Iran: Diplomatic Alliance and Power Politics in the Middle East. I. B. Tauris, London, 2006Google Scholar
  11. Hunter, S. T., Iran after Khomeini. New York, 1992Google Scholar
  12. Kamrava, M., Political History of Modern Iran: from Tribalism to Theocracy. London, 1993Google Scholar
  13. Kinzer, Stephen, All the Shah’s Men: an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. John Wiley, Indianapolis, 2003Google Scholar
  14. Martin, Vanessa, Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran. I. B. Tauris, London and New York, 2000Google Scholar
  15. Mir-Hosseini, Ziba, Islam and Gender: The Religious Debate in Contemporary Iran. Princeton Univ. Press, 1999Google Scholar
  16. Modaddel, M., Class, Politics and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. Columbia Univ. Press, 1992Google Scholar
  17. Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. I. B. Tauris, London, 1999Google Scholar
  18. Omid, H., Islam and the Post-Revolutionary State in Iran. London, 1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rahnema, A. and Behdad, S. (eds.) Iran After the Revolution: the Crisis of an Islamic State. London, 1995Google Scholar
  20. National Statistical Office: Statistical Centre of Iran, Dr Fatemi Avenue, Tehran 1414663111, Iran.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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