• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


By the 1st millennium BC the Diakhi (Taokhi) and the Qolha (Colchis) tribal groups had coalesced and developed bronze casting techniques. A two-state confederation emerged as early as the 6th century BC, with Colchis (Egrisi) in the west and Kartli (Iberia) in the east. The Greeks established Black Sea colonies from the 6th century BC, including Phasis (present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchire) and Dioscuras (Sukhumi). Parnavaz I ruled a united Kartli (or Georgia) from his citadel of Armaztsikhe from c. 302–237 BC.


Parliamentary Election Separatist Force Supreme Council Autonomous Republic Electoral Fraud 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Areshidze, Irakly, Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition. Michigan State Univ. Press, East Lansing, 2007Google Scholar
  2. Brook, S., Claws of the Crab: Georgia and Armenia in Crisis. London, 1992Google Scholar
  3. Coppieters, Bruno and Legvold, Robert, (eds.) Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005Google Scholar
  4. Gachechiladze, R., The New Georgia: Space, Society, Politics. London, 1995Google Scholar
  5. Mikaberidze, Alexander, Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 2007Google Scholar
  6. Nasmyth, P., Georgia: a Rebel in the Caucasus. London, 1992Google Scholar
  7. Nodia, Ghia and Scholtbach, Alvaro Pinto, The Political Landscape of Georgia: Political Parties, Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects. Eburon, Delf, 2007Google Scholar
  8. Pelkmans, Mathijs, Defending the Border: Identity, Religion, and Modernity in the Republic of Georgia. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca (NY), 2006Google Scholar
  9. Suny, R. G., The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd ed. Indiana Univ. Press, 1994Google Scholar
  10. Wheatley, Jonathan, Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution: Delayed Transition in the Former Soviet Union. Ashgate, Aldershot, 2005Google Scholar
  11. State Department for Statistics Website:
  12. Coppieters, Bruno, Darchiashvili, David and Akaba, Natella, Federal Practice: Exploring Alternatives for Georgia and Abkhazia. VUB Brussels University Press, 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations