What Works in the Third World?

  • James H. Mittelman
  • Mustapha Kamal Pasha
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


When an acquaintance in Dar es Salaam invited me (JHM) to visit her family in an ujamaa (communal) village, I jumped at the opportunity. Hemmed in by the Indian Ocean on one side and groves of mango trees, coconut palms, jackfruit (which resemble large basketballs) and the infamous durian plant, with its succulent pulp of fine flavour but skunk-like smell, on the other, we careered southwards for 100 miles along a washboard road to the Rufiji River. There we navigated inland over a series of dirt paths until we reached our destination: numerous clumps of neat, thatched huts nestled astride the river bank.


Foreign Capital World Country Advanced Country Private Capital Underdeveloped Country 
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Notes and References

  1. A penetrating essay on human agency, on which we have drawn, is Alan Gilbert, ‘Democracy and Individuality’, Social Philosophy and Policy, 3, 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 19–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Some of the material on Mauritania is borrowed from ‘Drought Turns Nomads’ World Upside Down’, New York Times, 3 March 1985, and ‘Poorer Nations Get Poorer as Recession Eases’, Africa News, 21, 13 (26 September 1983) p. 6.Google Scholar
  3. The sentences quoted from V.S. Naipaul can be found in The Return of Eva Peron (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980) p. 141, andGoogle Scholar
  4. A Bend in the River (New York: Vintage Books, 1979) p. 27.Google Scholar
  5. Frantz Fanon’s remark on the ideology of racism is taken from ‘Racism and Culture’, in Fanon, Toward the African Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964) p. 43.Google Scholar
  6. See the commentary by Aristide Zolberg, ‘Frantz Fanon — A Gospel for the Damned’, Encounter, 27, 5 (November 1966), pp. 56–63.Google Scholar
  7. Garrett Hardin’s views are set forth in his ‘Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor’, Psychology Today, 6, 4 (8 September 1974), pp. 38ff.Google Scholar
  8. Seminal work on the ‘objective problem’ is Celso Furtado, Accumulation and Development: The Logic of Industrial Civilization, trans. Suzette Macedo (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1983);Google Scholar
  9. Celso Furtado, No to Recession and Unemployment: An Examination of the Brazilian Economic Crisis (London: Third World Foundation, 1984); andGoogle Scholar
  10. Peter Evans, Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational, State and Local Capital in Brazil (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979), especially pp. 80–1.Google Scholar
  11. Data on arms sales are derived from the Independent Commission on International Development Issues, North-South: A Program for Survival (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980) p. 117; and ‘Cost-Effective Job Creation’, and ‘The Third World Limits Its Arsenals’, articles in the New York Times on 22 September 1982, and 18 March 1984, respectively.Google Scholar
  12. Keynes’s comment appears in Donald Moggridge (ed.), The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes: Activities 1939–1945; Internal War Finance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978) vol. 22, p. 149.Google Scholar
  13. Seymour Melman summarizes his research findings in ‘Looting the Means of Production’, New York Times, 7 October 1980.Google Scholar
  14. We have borrowed information on the NICs from Stephan Haggard and Chung-in Moon, ‘The South Korean State in the International Economy: Liberal, Dependent, or Mercantile?’, in John Gerard Ruggie (ed.), The Antinomies of Interdependence: National Welfare and the International Division of Labor (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), especially pp. 132–41 and 185–9.Google Scholar
  15. Extensive research on capitalist development in Japan has been carried out by Jon Halliday, A Political History of Japanese Capitalism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  16. On restructuring ties with the world order, see Furtado, Accumulation and Development, pp. 115, 118, and Immanuel Wallerstein, The Politics of the World-Economy: The States, the Movements, and the Civilizations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984) p. 10.Google Scholar
  17. The strategy of managing the ties of dependency is assessed by Robert W. Cox, ‘Production and Hegemony: Toward a Political Economy of World Order’, in Harold K. Jacobson and Dusan Sidjanski (eds), The Emerging International Order: Dynamic Processes, Constraints and Opportunities (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1982) pp. 54–6, andGoogle Scholar
  18. André Tiano, La dia-lectique de la depéndance: Analyse des relations économiques et financières internacionales (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1977) pp. 402–6.Google Scholar
  19. The concept ‘war of position’ is developed by Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, trans. and ed. Quinin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971), passim.Google Scholar
  20. Much of our information on oil is derived from Anthony Sampson, The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped (New York: Bantam Books, 1976);Google Scholar
  21. Jack Anderson, with James Boyd, Fiasco (New York: Times Books, 1983); and ‘Energy Upheaval: Questions about OPEC, Past and Future’, New York Times, 3 October 1983.Google Scholar
  22. On the leverage of Western banks, see ‘Acting to Avert Debtor Cartel’, New York Times, 20 June 1984, andGoogle Scholar
  23. Joan Robinson, Aspects of Development and Underdevelopment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979) p. 132.Google Scholar
  24. Cuba’s policy towards the pharmaceuticals is described by Mike Muller, The Health of Nations: An Investigation of the Pharmaceutical Industry’s Exploitation of the Third World for Profit (London: Faber & Faber, 1982), especially p. 65, andGoogle Scholar
  25. Luis R. Capo, ‘International Drug Procurement and Market Intelligence: Cuba’, World Development, 11, 3 (November 1983), pp. 217–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Our discussion of an alternative to the IMF model of accumulation relies very heavily on John Loxley, ‘IMF and World Bank Conditionality and Sub-Saharan Africa’ (mimeo, n.d.). A compelling critique of Clive Thomas, Dependence and Transformation: The Economics of the Transition to Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974) has been developed by Andrew Coulson (mimeo, Department of Economics, University of Dar es Salaam, n.d.).Google Scholar
  27. The argument about the division of labour in agriculture is presented in Kevin Danaher, Myths of African Hunger (San Francisco: Institute for Food and Development Policy, 1985) p. 2.Google Scholar
  28. Discussion of India’s ‘information revolution’ is partly based on Peter B. Evans ‘Indian Informatics in the 1980s: The Changing Character of State Involvement,’ World Development, 20 (1992): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© James H. Mittelman and Mustapha Kamal Pasha 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Mittelman
    • 1
  • Mustapha Kamal Pasha
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International ServiceAmerican UniversityWashington, DCUSA

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