Education and Welfare

  • Derek Fraser


That there was a social problem of education in the period following the Industrial Revolution was, as in the field of public health, the result of the distribution of wealth in English society. For those who could afford to pay the fees there was an educational provision leading to the universities, but for the mass of society there was a deficiency of educational opportunity. The rich could buy themselves out of the problems of squalor and ignorance, the poor could not and the state played little role in education. There were indeed only three ways of getting a state education, by being a cadet, a felon or a pauper, since the army, prison and workhouse did provide some schooling. For the rest there was the occasional attendance at charity or endowed schools supported by subscription, or dame schools, some of which were no more than childminding establishments.


Police Force School Board Juvenile Offender Elementary Education Early Nineteenth Century 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Quoted by M. Sturt, The Education of the People (1967) p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quoted by H. Silver, The Concept of Popular Education (1965) p. 45.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Quoted by J. T. Ward and J. H. Treble, ‘Religion and Education in 1843’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, XX (1969) 109.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. F. Hook, A Letter to the Lord Bishop of St Davids (1846) p. 38.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    E. Baines to J. Kay-Shuttleworth, 19 Oct 1867, Baines Papers (Leeds City Archives).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    G. Sutherland, Elementary Education in the Nineteenth Century (1971) p. 28.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    Quoted by F. Smith, A History of English Elementary Education (1931) p. 331.Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    Seventh Annual Report if the Poor Law Commissioners (1841), quoted by R. G. Hodgkinson, The Origins of the National Health Service (1967) p. 60.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    R. Pinker, English Hospital Statistics, 1861–1938 (1966) P. 49.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    Quoted by B. Abel-Smith, The Hospitals, 1800–1948 (1964) p. 64.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    Grey to Russell, 27 Dec 1850, quoted by H. Parris, Constitutional Bureaucracy (1969) p. 208.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    Second Report of the Surveyor-General of Prisons (1847) p. 56, quoted by J. Carlebach, Caring for Children in Trouble (1970) p. 50.Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    Quoted by D. Owen, English Philanthropy, 1660–1960 (1965) p. 155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Derek Fraser 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BradfordUK

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