Chronic Hyperventilation and Panic Attacks During Sleep
This paper integrates data from studies of panic attacks during sleep with (a) stages of sleep, (b) respiratory changes during sleep, (c) physiological principles underlying chronic hyperventilation, and (d) the psychological phenomenon of fear. The thesis of the paper is that panic attacks during sleep are a consequence of renal compensation for severe chronic hyperventilation.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Brown, E.B. (1953). Physiological Effects of Hyperventilation. Physiological Reviews, 33, 445–471.Google Scholar
- Cannon, W.B. (1939). Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement (2nd ed.). Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
- Craske, M., Grenier, V., Klosko, J., and Barlow, D. (1986). Night Pa nie. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
- Hauri, P., Friedman, M., Ravaris, R., and Fisher, J. (1985). Sleep in Agoraphobia with Panic Attacks. In Sleep research (Vol. 14). (eds. M.H. Chafe, D.J. McGinty, and R. Wilder-Jones). BIS/BRS, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E. (1967). The Biology of Dreaming. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E. (1973). The Functions of Sleep. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Ley, R. (1982). Panphobia: A Cause of Agoraphobia and a Prescription for its Cure. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York at Albany.Google Scholar
- Ley, R. (1987). Panic Disorder: A Hyperventilation Interpretation. In Cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders, (eds. L. Michelson and M. Ascher). Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Lum, L. C. (1976). The syndrome of chronic habitual hyperventilation. In Modern trends in psychosomatic medicine, Vol. 3. (ed. O. Hill). Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
- Naifeh, K. and Kamiya, J. (1981). The Nature of Respiratory Changes Associated with Sleep Onset. Sleep, 4, 49–59.Google Scholar