Consider a particle moving along a straight line BOA (Fig. 3.1). The position of the particle is given by its distance from O, distances to the right of O being taken to be positive and distances to the left of O being taken to be negative. The particle is at the point P, where OP = s, at time t and at the point Q, where OQ = s + δs at time t + δt. Thus, in moving from P to Q, the particle travels a distance δs in time δt. The average velocity of the particle over this interval of time δt is
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© C. W. Celia, A. T. F. Nice & K. F. Elliott 1982