The Usage of the Grid in the Simulation of the Comet Oort-Cloud Formation
The research of the reservoirs of small bodies in the Solar System can help us to refine our theory of the origin and evolution of the whole planetary system we live in. With this chapter, we introduce a numerical simulation of the evolution of an initial proto-planetary disc for 2 Gyr period, in which 10,038 studied test particles, representing the disc, are perturbed by four giant planets in their current orbits and having their current masses. In addition, Galactic-tide and stellar perturbations are considered. The simulation is performed using the grid computing. We explain which circumstances allow us to use the system of independent, online not communicating CPUs. Our simulation describes the probable evolution of the Oort cloud population. In contrast to the previous simulations by other authors, we find an extremely low formation efficiency of this population. The largest number of the bodies (66.4%) was ejected into the interstellar space. Besides other results, we reveal a dominance of high galactic inclinations of comet-cloud orbits.
G.L. thanks PI2S2 Project managed by the Consorzio COMETA, http://www.pi2s2.it and http://www.consorzio-cometa.it for the computational resources and technical support. M.J. and L.N. thank the project “Enabling Grids for E-sciencE II” (http://www.eu-egee.org/) for the provided computational capacity and support in the development of the computer code, which was necessary for the management of tasks on the GRID. They also acknowledge the partial support of this work by VEGA − the Slovak Grant Agency for Science (grant No. 0011). P.A.D. acknowledges the partial support of this work from Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (year 2009, grant No. N N203 302335).
- 2.Dones, L., Weissman, P.R., Levison, H.F., Duncan, M.J.: Oort cloud formation and dynamics. In: Festou, M., Keller, H.U., Weaver, H.A. (eds.) Comets II, pp. 153–174. University of Arizona Press, Tucson (2004)Google Scholar
- 3.Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Duncan, M.J., Weissman, P.R.: Simulation of the formation of the Oort cloud. I. The Reference Model. Private communication (2005)Google Scholar
- 9.Everhart, E.: An efficient integrator that uses Gauss-Radau spacings. In: Carusi, A., Valsecchi, G.B. (eds.) Dynamics of Comets: Their Origin and Evolution, pp. 185–202. Reidel, Dordrecht (1985)Google Scholar
- 10.Fernández, J.A.: The formation and dynamical survival of the comet cloud. In: Carusi, A., Valsecchi, G.B. (eds.) Dynamics of Comets: Their Origin and Evolution, pp. 45–70. Reidel, Dordrecht (1985)Google Scholar
- 14.Oort, J.H.: The structure of the cloud of comets surrounding the Solar System and a hypothesis concerning its origin. Bull. Astron. Inst. Neth. 11, 91–110 (1950)Google Scholar
- 15.Safronov, V.S., Chebotarev, G.A., Kazimirchak-Polonskaia, E.I., Marsden, B.G.: Ejection of bodies from the solar system in the course of the accumulation of the giant planets and the formation of the cometary cloud. In: The Motion, Evolution of Orbits, and Origin of Comets – Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 45, Leningrad, pp. 329–334. Springer, New York/Berlin (1972)Google Scholar