Cytokines, Stress, and Depression
From the data that are reviewed in this volume, several important points emerge: (1) cytokines administered to patients and laboratory animals induce symptoms of depression, including, depressed mood, decreased interest in daily activities, anhedonia, reduced food intake, sleep disorders, hyperactivity of the HPA axis, and glucocorticoid resistance; (2) exposure to stressors can induce the expression of cytokines at the periphery and in the brain, although the exact conditions in which this occurs are still elusive; (3) depressed patients display an activation of the mono-cyte/macrophage arm of the immune response; (4) clinical diseases with an inflammatory component are associated with a high prevalence of depressive disorders; (5) antidepressants have anti-inflammatory properties and attenuate the behavioral effects of immune challenge.
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