Cell Walls

  • G. W. Gooday


Fungal walls have commanded much attention as they are the major cellular features that distinguish fungi from other organisms. The shape of the fungal cell is the shape of its wall. The mechanical strength of their walls enables fungi to assume a variety of forms, such as penetrative, ramifying hyphae, proliferating yeast cells and spores of many shapes and sizes. The chemical and physical make-up of the wall gives protection to the protoplast from a range of environmental stresses. Its physical strength gives protection against osmotic bursting. Specific components, especially of spore walls, give protection against damage from ultraviolet radiation, enzymic lysis, organic solvents, toxic chemicals and desiccation. Some secreted materials may be considered as periplasmic, as they are secreted from the plasma membrane but do not move through the wall to the outside.


Hyphal Growth Neurospora Crassa Cell Wall Biosynthesis Spore Wall General Microbiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bancroft, G.J., Rockett, E.R. and Collins, H.L. (1992) Capsule synthesis and immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans, in New Strategies in Fungal Disease, (eds J.E. Bennett, R.J. Hay and P.K. Peterson), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 179–91.Google Scholar
  2. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1968) Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis and taxonomy of fungi. Annual Review of Microbiology, 22, 87–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1973) Fundamental aspects of hyphal morphogenesis, in Microbial Differentiation, Society for Experimental Microbiology Symposium, vol. 23, (eds J.M. Ashworth and J.E. Smith), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 245–67.Google Scholar
  4. Bartnicki-Garcia, S., Ruiz-Herrera, J. and Bracker, C.E. (1979) Chitosomes and chitin synthesis, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 149–68.Google Scholar
  5. Boiler, T. (1985) Induction of hydrolases as a defence reaction against pathogens, in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress, (eds J.L. Key and T. Kosuge), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 247–62.Google Scholar
  6. Bonfante-Fasolo, P., Peretto, S., Testa, B. and Faccio, A. (1987) Ultrastructural localization of cell surface sugar residues in ericoid mycorrhizal fungi by gold-labelled lectins. Protoplasma, 139, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonfante-Fasolo, P., Peretto, R. and Peretto, S. (1992) Cell surface interactions in endomycorrhizal symbiosis, in Perspectives in Plant Cell Recognition, (eds J.A. Callow and J.R. Green), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 239–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borgia, P. (1992) Roles of the orlA, tsE, and bimG genes of Aspergillus nidulans in chitin synthesis, Journal of Bacteriology, 174, 384–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowen, A.R., Chen-Wu, J.L., Momany, M. et al. (1992) Classification of fungal chitin synthases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 519–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Briza, P., Ellinger, A., Winkler, G. and Breitenbach, M. (1990) Characterization of a D, L-dityrosine-containing macromolecule from yeast ascospore walls. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265, 15118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulawa, C.E. (1992) CSD2, CSD3, and CSD4, genes required for chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the CSD2 gene product is related to chitin synthases and to developmentally regulated proteins in Rhizobium species and Xenopus laevis. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 174, 1764–76.Google Scholar
  12. Bulawa, C.E. (1993) Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi. Annual Review of Microbiology, 47, 505–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bulone, V., Chanzy, H., Gay, L. et al. (1992) Characterization of chitin and chitin synthase from the cellulosic cell wall fungus Saprolegnia menoica. Experimental Mycology, 16, 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burnett, J.H. (1979) Aspects of the structure and growth of hyphal walls, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  15. Cabib, E. (1987) The synthesis and degradation of chitin. Advances in Enzymology, 59, 59–101.Google Scholar
  16. Cabib, E. (1991) Differential inhibition of chitin synthetases 1 and 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by polyoxin D and nikkomycins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35, 170–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cabib, E., Roberts, R. and Bowers, B. (1982) Synthesis of the yeast cell wall and its regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 51, 763–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabib, E., Bowers, B., Sburlati, A. and Silverman, S.J. (1988) Fungal cell wall synthesis: the construction of a biological structure. Microbiological Sciences, 5, 370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cabib, E., Silverman, S.J. and Shaw, J.A. (1992) Chitinase and chitin synthase I: counter balancing activities in cell separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of General Microbiology, 138, 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen-Wu, J.L., Zwicker, J., Bowen, A.R. and Robbins, P.W. (1992) Expression of chitin synthase genes during yeast and hyphal growth phases of Candida albicans. Molecular Microbiology, 6, 497–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Datema, R., van den Ende, H. and Wessels, J.G.H. (1977) The hyphal wall of Mucor mucedo. 1. Polyanionic polymers. European Journal of Biochemistry, 80, 611–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, L.L. and Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1984) Chitosan synthesis in tandem action of chitin synthetase and chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii. Biochemistry, 23, 1065–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Day, A.W. and Garber, E.B. (1988) Ustilago violaceae, anther smut of the Caryophyllaceae. Advances in Plant Pathology, 6, 457–82.Google Scholar
  24. De Nobel, J.G., Dijkers, C., Hooijberg, E. and Klis, F.M. (1989) Increased cell wall porosity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment with dithiothreitol or EDTA. Journal of General Microbiology, 135, 2077–84.Google Scholar
  25. Debono, M. and Gordee, R.S. (1990) Drug discovery: nature’s approach, in Chemotherapy of Fungal Disease, (ed J. Ryley), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 77–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Douglas, L.J. (1987) Adhesion of Candida species to epithelial surfaces. CRC Critical Reviews of Microbiology, 15, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dow, J.M. and Villa, V.D. (1980) Oligoglucuronide production in Mucor rouxii: evidence for a role of endohydrolases in hyphal extension. Journal of Bacteriology, 142, 939–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dow, J.M., Carreon, R.R. and Villa, V.D. (1981) Role of membranes of mycelial Mucor rouxii in synthesis and secretion of cell wall matrix polymers. Journal of Bacteriology, 145, 272–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein, L., Laccetti, L.B., Staples, R.C. and Hoch, H.C. (1987) Cell-substratum adhesive protein involved in surface contact responses of the bean rust fungus. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 30, 373–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fevre, M. (1979) Glucanases, glucan synthases and wall growth in Saprolegnia monoica, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 225–63.Google Scholar
  31. Girard, V. and Fevre, M. (1984) β-1-4-and 3-1-3-glucan synthases are associated with the plasma-membrane of the fungus Saprolegnia. Planta, 160, 400–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gooday, G.W. (1971) An autoradiographic study of hyphal growth of some fungi. Journal of General Microbiology, 67, 125–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gooday, G.W. (1977) Biosynthesis of the fungal wall: mechanisms and implications. The first Fleming Lecture. Journal of General Microbiology, 99, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gooday, G.W. (1979) Chitin synthesis and differentiation in Coprinus cinereus, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 203–23.Google Scholar
  35. Gooday, G.W. (1981) Sporopollenin, in The Fungal Spore: Morphogenetic Controls, (eds G. Turian and H.R. Hohl), Academic Press, New York, pp. 307–23.Google Scholar
  36. Gooday, G.W. (1990) Inhibition of chitin metabolism, in The Biochemistry of Cell Walls and Membranes in Fungi, (eds P.J. Kuhn, A.P.J. Trinci, M.J. Jung, M.W. Goosey and L.G. Copping), Springer, Berlin, pp. 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gooday, G.W. (1992) The fungal surface and its role in sexual agglutination, in Perspectives in Plant Cell Recognition, (eds J.A. Callow and J.R. Green), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gooday, G.W. (1993) Cell surface diversity and dynamics in yeasts and filamentous fungi. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement, 74, 12S–20S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gooday, G.W. and Trinci, A.P.J. (1980) Wall structure and biosynthesis in fungi, in The Eukaryotic Microbial Cell, Society for General Microbiology Symposium, vol. 30,g (eds G.W. Gooday, D. Lloyd and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 207–51.Google Scholar
  40. Gooday, G.W., Zhu, W-Y. and O’Donnell, R.W. (1992) What are the roles of chitinases in the growing fungus? FEMS Microbiology Letters, 100, 387–92.Google Scholar
  41. Gow, N.A.R. and Gooday, G.W. (1983) Ultrastructure of chitin in hyphae of Candida albicans and other dimorphic and mycelial fungi. Protoplasma, 115, 52–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gubler, F. and Hardham, A.R. (1988) Secretion of adhesive material during encystment of Phytophthora cinnamomi zoospores, characterized by immunogold labelling with monoclonal antibodies to components of peripheral vesicles. Journal of Cell Science, 90, 225–35.Google Scholar
  43. Hamer, J.E., Howard, R.J., Chumley, F.G. and Valent, B. (1988) A mechanism for surface attachment of spores of a plant pathogenic fungus. Science, 239, 288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hartland, R.P., Emerson, G.W. and Sullivan, P.A. (1991) A secreted β-glucan-branching enzyme from Candida albicans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 246, 155–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holmes, A.R., Cannon, R.D. and Shepherd, M.G. (1992) Mechanisms of aggregation accompanying morphogenesis in Candida albicans. Oral Microbiology and Immunity, 7, 32–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Howard, R.J. and Ferrari, M.A. (1989) Role of melanin in appressorium function. Experimental Mycology, 13, 403–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jabri, E., Quigley, D.R., Alders, M. et al. (1991) 1, 3-β-D-Glucan synthesis of Neurospora crassa. Current Microbiolology, 19, 153–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kamada, T., Takemaru, T., Prosser, J.I. and Gooday, G.W. (1991a) Right and lefthanded helicity of chitin microfibrils in stipe cells of Coprinus cinereus. Protoplasma, 165, 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kamada, T., Bracker, C.E. and Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1991b) Chitosomes and chitin synthetase in the asexual life cycle of Mucor rouxii. Journal of General Microbiology, 137, 1241–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kritzman, G., Chet, I. and Herds, Y. (1978) Localization of β-(1,3)-glucanase in the mycelium of Scterotium rolfsii. Journal of Bacteriology, 134, 470–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuranda, M.J. and Robbins, P.W. (1991) Chitinase is required for cell separation during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 19 758–67.Google Scholar
  52. Lehle, L. (1981) Biosynthesis of mannoproteins in fungi, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol. 13B, Plant Carbohydrates II, (eds W. Tanner and F.A. Loewus), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 459–83.Google Scholar
  53. Manocha, M.S. and Chen, Y. (1991) Isolation and partial characterization of host cell surface agglutinin and its role in attachment of a biotrophic mycoparasite. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 37, 377–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meader, P., Hill, K., Wagner, J. et al. (1990) The yeast KRE5 gene encodes a probable endoplasmic reticulum protein required for (1–6)-(β-D-glucan synthesis and normal growth. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 10, 3013–9.Google Scholar
  55. Milewski, S., Chmara, H. and Borowski, E. (1986) Antibiotic tetaine — a selective inhibitor of chitin and mannoprotein synthesis in Candida albicans. Archives of Microbiology, 145, 234–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miyakawa, T., Azuma, Y., Tsuchiya, E. and Fukui, S. (1987) Involvement of cell-surface proteins in sexual cell-cell interactions of Tremella mesenterica, a heterobasidiomycete fungus. Journal of General Microbiology, 133, 439–43.Google Scholar
  57. Moore, S.A. (1983) Comparison of dose-response curves for a-factor-induced cell division arrest, agglutination, and projection formation in yeast cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 258, 13 849–56.Google Scholar
  58. Mullins, J.T. (1979) A freeze-fracture study of hormone-induced branching in the fungus Achlya. Tissue and Cell, 11, 585–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mullins, J.T. and Ellis, E.A. (1974) Sexual morphogenesis in Achlya: ultrastructural basis for the hormone induction of antheridial hyphae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 71, 1347–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orlean, P. (1987) Two chitin synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 262, 5732–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Page, S. and Odds, F.C. (1988) Binding of plasma proteins to Candida species in vitro. Journal of General Microbiology, 34, 2693–702.Google Scholar
  62. Rast, D.M., Stussi, H., Hegnauer, H. and Nyhlen, L.E. (1981) Melanins, in The Fungal Spore: Morphogenetic Controls, (eds G. Turian and H.R. Hohl), Academic Press, New York, pp. 507–31.Google Scholar
  63. Rast, D.M., Horsch, M., Furter, R. and Gooday, G.W. (1991) A complex chitinolytic system in exponentially growing mycelium of Mucor rouxii: properties and function. Journal of General Microbiology, 137, 2797–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ride, J.P. (1992) Recognition signals and initiation of host responses controlling basic incompatibility between fungi and plants, in Perspectives in Plant Cell Recognition, (eds J.A. Callow and J.R. Green), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 213–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosenberger, R.F. (1979) Endogenous lytic enzymes and wall metabolism, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 265–77.Google Scholar
  66. Sakuda, S., Nishimoto, Y., Ohi, M. et al. (1990) Effects of demethylallosamidin, a potent yeast chitinase inhibitor, on cell division in yeast. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 54, 1333–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sburlati, A. and Cabib, E. (1986) Chitin synthetase 2, a presumptive participant in septum formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261, 15147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Shaw, J.A., Mol, P.C., Bowers, B. et al. (1991) The function of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. Journal of Cell Biology, 114, 111–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shematek, E.M., Braatz, J.A. and Cabib, E. (1980) Biosynthesis of the yeast cell wall. I. Preparation and properties of β (1–3) glucan synthetase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 888–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Silverman, S.J. (1989) Similar and different domains of chitin synthases 1 and 2 of S. cerevisiae: two isoenzymes with distinct functions. Yeast, 5, 459–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Silverman, S.J., Sburlati, A., Slater, M.L. and Cabib, E. (1988) Chitin synthase 2 is essential for septum formation and cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 85, 4735–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Staebell, M. and Soil, D.R. (1985) Temporal and spatial differences in cell wall expansion during bud and mycelium formation in Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 131, 1467–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Surarit, R., Gopal, P.K. and Shepherd, M.G. (1988) Evidence for a glycosidic linkage between chitin and glucan in the cell wall of Candida albicans, Journal of General Microbiology, 134, 1723–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Szaniszlo, P.J., Kang, M.S. and Cabib, E. (1985) Stimulation of β(1,3) glucan synthetase of various fungi by nucleoside triphosphates. A generalized regulatory mechanism for cell wall biosynthesis. Journal of Bacteriology, 161, 1188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Taft, C.S. and Selitrennikoff, C.P. (1988) LY121019 inhibits Neurospora crassa growth and (1–3)-β-D-glucan synthase. Journal of Antibiotics, 41, 697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tunlid, A., Jansson, H-B. and Nordbring-Hertz, B. (1992) Fungal attachment to nematodes. Mycological Research, 96, 401–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Valdivieso, M.H., Mol, P.C., Shaw, J.A. et al. (1991) CAL1, a gene required for activity of chitin synthase 3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Cell Biology, 114, 101–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Van Rinsum, J., Klis, F.M. and van den Ende, H. (1991) Cell wall glucomannoproteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnnS. Yeast, 7, 717–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vermeulen, C.A. and Wessels, J.G.H. (1984) Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune. Protoplasma, 120, 123–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wessels, J.G.H. (1986) Cell wall synthesis in apical hyphal growth. International Review of Cytology, 104, 37–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wessels, J.G.H. (1990) Role of cell wall architecture in fungal tip growth generation, in Tip Growth in Plant and Fungal Cells, (ed. I.B. Heath), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  82. Wessels, J.G.H. (1992) Gene expression during fruiting in Schizophyllum commune. Mycological Research, 98, 609–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wessels, J.G.H. and Sietsma, J.H. (1979) Wall structure and growth in Schizophyllum commune, in Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth, (eds J.H. Burnett and A.P.J. Trinci), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 27–48.Google Scholar
  84. Wessels, J.G.H. and Sietsma, J.H. (1981) Fungal cell walls: a survey, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol. 13B, Plant Carbohydrates II, (eds W. Tanner and F.A. Loewus), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 352–415.Google Scholar
  85. Wheeler, M.H. and Bell, A.A. (1988) Melanins and their importance in pathogenic fungi. Current Topics in Medical Mycology, 2, 338–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yanagishima, N. and Yoshida, K. (1981) Sexual interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with special reference to the regulation of sexual agglutinability, in Sexual Interactions in Eukaryotic Microbes (eds D.H. O’Day and P.A. Horgen), Academic Press, New York, pp. 261–95.Google Scholar
  87. Yarden, O. and Yanofsky, C. (1991) Chitin synthase 1 plays a major role in cell wall biogenesis in Neurospora crassa. Genes and Development, 5, 2420–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhu, W-Y. and Gooday, G.W. (1992) Effects of nikkomycin and echinocandin on differentiated and undifferentiated mycelia of Botrytis cinerea and Mucor rouxii. Mycological Research, 96, 371–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zonneveld, B.J.M. (1974) α-1, 3 Glucan synthesis correlated with a-1, 3 glucanase synthesis, conidiation and fructification in morphological mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology, 81, 445–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Neil A.R. Gow and Geoffrey M. Gadd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. W. Gooday
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Marischal CollegeUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations