Healthcare Systems and Their (Lack of ) Integration

  • Ken HillmanEmail author
  • Jeffrey Braithwaite
  • Jack Chen


European monks established acute hospitals as an adjunct to their monasteries to care for Christian soldiers on their way to and from the crusades. The hospitals gradually separated from the monasteries to become more autonomous in both their locations and functions. Although separated from the monasteries geographically, they often remained formally attached to religious orders; in some instances, this relationship continues to this day.


Healthcare systems integration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Simpson Centre for Health Services Research, Critical Care Services, Liverpool HospitalThe University of New South WalesLiverpool BCAustralia
  2. 2.The Australian Institute of Health InnovationThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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