Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

Part of the Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems book series (AEFL, volume 5)


Electromagnetic hypersensitive persons (EHS) attribute their nonspecific health symptoms to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different sources in or outside their homes. In general, causal attribution is not restricted to specific EMF frequencies but involves a wide range from extremely low frequencies (ELF) up to radio frequencies (RF) including mobile telecommunication microwaves and radar. EHS argue that existing exposure limits were not low enough to account for their increased sensitivities. Results of measurement campaigns are summarized. They demonstrate that environmental fields in the ELF and RF range are usually orders of magnitudes below exposure limits. The rational and biological background of recommended exposure limits are described. The existing scientific studies are reviewed, including investigations on the prevalence of EHS among the general population, ability of EHS to perceive and/or react to exposures to weak EMF (assessed in laboratory provocational studies or to the vicinity of EMF sources studied by epidemiologic approaches), and the existence of a specific symptom cluster, which could characterize a suspected EHS syndrome, or individual EHS-specific factors such as electric perception thresholds, neurophysiologic parameters, and cognitive performance and behavior. However, in spite of the variety of scientific attempts, a causal role of EMF remains yet unproven. This does not mean that the suffering could be ignored. It is recognized that EHS cases deserve help. Therapeutic approaches are described and the conclusion of the World Health Organisation (WHO) is summarized.


Mobile Phone Perception Threshold Specific Absorption Rate Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Sham Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdel-Rassoul, G., El-Fateh, O.A., Salem, M.A., Michael, A., Farahat, F., El-Batanouny, M., and Salem, E., 2007, Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology 28(2): 434–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abelin, T., Altpeter, E.S., and Röösli, M., 2005, Sleep disturbances in the vicinity of the short-wave broadcast transmitter Schwarzenburg. Somnologie 9: 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahlbom, A., Day, N., Feychting, M., Roman, E., Skinner, J., Dockerty, J., Linet, M., McBride, M., Michaelis, J., Olsen, J.H., Tynes, T., and Verkasalo, P.K., 2000, A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 83: 692–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altpeter, E.S., Röösli, M., Battaglia, M., Pfluger, D., Minder, C.E., and Abelin, T., 2006, Effect of short-wave (6–22 MHz) magnetic fields on sleep quality and melatonin cycle in humans: The Schwarzenburg shut-down study. Bioelectromagnetics 27: 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen, V., 2003, Comparison of peak SAR levels in concentric sphere head models of children and adults for irradiation by a dipole at 900 MHz. Phys Med Biol 48: 3263–3275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batz, L., and Irnich, W., 1996, Untersuchungen zur elektrischen Wahrnehmungs-schwelle und Interpretation der Ergebnisse (investigation on electric perception thresholds and interpretation of results). Biomed Technik Ergänzungsband1 41: 556–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, G., Schüz, J., Samkange-Zeeb, F., and Blettner, M., 2004, Assessment of radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephone daily use in an epidemiologic study: German validity study of the international case-control study of cancers of the brain – Interphone Study. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol 14: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergdahl, J., 1995, Psychological aspects of patients with symptoms presumed to be caused by electricity of visual display units. Acta Ondoto Scand 53: 304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergqvist, U., Vogel, E., Aringer, L., Cunningham, J., Gobba, F., Leitgeb, N., Miro, L., Neubauer, G., Ruppe, I., Vecchia, P., and Wadman, C., 1997, Possible health implications of subjective symptoms and electromagnetic fields. CEC DG V report, Arbetslivinstitutet, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  10. BfS, 2008, Mobile phone handsets SAR values. http://www.bfs.deGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder, L.M., and Campbell, K.A., 2004, Medically unexplained symptoms and neuropsychological assessment. J Clin Experim Neuropsych 26: 369–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bornkessel, C., Schubert, M., Wuschek, M., and Schmidt, P., 2007, Determination of the general public exposure around GSM and UMTS base stations. Radiat Prot Dosim 124: 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christ, A., and Kuster, N., 2005, Differences in RF energy absorption in the heads of adults and children. Bioelectromagnetics 26(Suppl 7): S31–S44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dalziel, C.F., 1946, Dangerous electric currents. Trans AIEE 65: 579–584Google Scholar
  15. Dalziel, C.F., 1950, Effect of frequency on perception currents. Trans AIEE 69: 1162–1168.Google Scholar
  16. Dalziel, C.F., 1954, The threshold of perception currents. Trans AIEE ptIIIB: 990–996.Google Scholar
  17. David, E., Reißenweber, J., and Wojtysiak, A., 2004, Provocation studies in electromagnetic hypersensitive persons. Proc WHO Workshop on EHS, Prague, 123–133.Google Scholar
  18. Deadman, J.E., Armstrong, B.G., McBride, M.L., Gallagher, R., and Theriault, G., 1999, Exposures of children in Canada to 60 Hz magnetic and electric fields. Scand J Work Environ Health 25: 368–375.Google Scholar
  19. Eltiti, S., Wallace, D., Ridgewell, A., Zougkou, K., Russo, R., Sepulveda, F., Mirshekar-Syahkal, D., Rasor, P., Deeple, R., and Fox, E., 2007, Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study. Environ Health Persp 115: 1603–1608.Google Scholar
  20. Flodin, U., Seneby, A., and Tegenfeldt, C., 2000, Provocation of electric hypersensitivity under everyday conditions. Scand J Work Environ Health 26: 93–98.Google Scholar
  21. Frick, U., Rehm, J., and Eichhammer, P., 2002, Risk perception, somatisation, and self-report of complaints related to electromagnetic fields – A randomized survey study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 205: 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frick, U., Kharraz, A., Hauser, S., Wiegand, R., Rehm, J., von Kovatsits, U., and Eichhammer, P., 2005, Comparison perception of singular transcranial magnetic stimuli by subjectively electrosensitive subjects and general population controls. Bioelectromagnetics 26: 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gabriel, C., 2005, Dielectric properties of Biological tissue: Variation with age. Bioelectromagnetics 26(Suppl 7): S12–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenland, S., Sheppard, A.R., Kaune, W.T., Poole, C., and Kelsh, M.A., 2000, A pooled analysis of magnetic fields, wire codes and childhood leukaemia. Epidemiology 11: 624–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hadjem, A., Lautru, D., Dale, C., Wong, M.F., Hanna, V.F., Wiart, J., 2005, Study of specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in two child head models and in adult heads using mobile phones. IEEE Trans Microwave Theor Techn 53: 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamnerius, Y., Agrup, G., Galt, S., Nilsson, R., Sandblom, J., and Lindgren, R., 1993, Double-blind provocation study of hypersensitivity reactions associated with exposure from VDUs. R Swed Acad Sci Rep 2: 67–72.Google Scholar
  27. Hamnerius, Y., Agrup, G., Galt, S., Nilsson, R., Sandblom, J., and Lindgren, R., 1994, Double-blind provocation study of reactions associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields from VDUs. Proc Cost 244 Workshop EHS, Graz, 41–43.Google Scholar
  28. HCN-EMFC, 2006, TNO-study on the effects of GSM and UMTS signals on well-being and cognition. Health Council of the Netherlands publication 2006/11E.Google Scholar
  29. Heinrich, S., Ossig, A., Schlittmeier, S., and Hellbrück, J., 2007, Elektromagnetische Felder einer UMTS – Mobilfunkbasisstation und mögliche Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit – eine experimentelle Felduntersuchung (electromagnetic fields of UMTS base stations and their potential impact on well-being – An experinmental field study). Umweltmed Forsch Prax 13: 171–180.Google Scholar
  30. Henningsen, P., Zimmermann, T., and Sattel, H., 2003, Medically unexplained physical symptoms, anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Psychosom Med 65: 528–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hietanen, M., Hämäläinen, A.M., and Husman, T., 2002, Hypersensitivity symptoms associated with exposure to cellular telephones: No causal link. Bioelectromagnetics 23: 264–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hillert, L., 1998, Hypersensitivity to electricity: Management and intervention programs. Proc Int Workshop EMF and Non-Specific Health Symptoms, Graz, 17−30.Google Scholar
  33. Hillert, L., 2004, Cognitive behaviour therapy for patients who report electrical hypertherapy. Proc WHO Workshop EHS, Prague, 163–174.Google Scholar
  34. Hillert, L., Berglind, N., Arnetz, B.B., and Bellander, T., 2002, Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric and magnetic fields in a population-based questionnaire survey. Scand J Work Environ Health 28: 33–41.Google Scholar
  35. Hillert, L., Akerstedt, T., Lowden, A., Wiholm, C., Kuster, N., Ebert, S., Boutry, C., Moffat, S.D., Berg, M., and Arnetz, B.B., 2008, The effects of 884 MHz GMS wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huss, A., and Röösli, M., 2006, Consultations in primary care for symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields – A survey among general practitioners. BMC Public Health 6: 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hutter, H.P., Moshammer, H., Wallner, P., and Kundi, M., 2006, Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Environ Med 63: 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. IARC, 2002, Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: Static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Volume 80, IARC, Lyon.Google Scholar
  39. ICNIRP, 1998, Guidelines for limiting the exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys 74: 494–522.Google Scholar
  40. ICNIRP, 2003, Exposure to Static and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Health Consequences (0 Hz–100 kHz). Märkl-Druck, Munich.Google Scholar
  41. IEEE PC95.1-2005, Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz – 300 GHz.Google Scholar
  42. IEEE PC95.6-2002, Standard for Safety Levels with Respect To Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, 0–3 kHz.Google Scholar
  43. Irnich, W., and Batz, L., 1989, Die Wahrnehmungsempfindlichkeit gegenüber 50 Hz Wechselspannung bzw. Wechselstrom (perception of 50 Hz AC voltages and currents). Biomed Techn 34: 207–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johanssen, O., Gangi, S., Liang, Y., Yoshimura, K., Jing, C., Liu, P.Y., 2001, Cutaneous mast cells are altered in normal healthy volunteers sitting in front of ordinary TVs/PCs – Results from open field provocation experiments. J Cutan Pathol 10: 513–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaune, W.T., Miller, M.C., Linet, M.S., Hatch, E.E., Kleinerman, R.A., Wacholder, S., Mohr, A.H., Tarone, R.E., and Haines, C., 2002, Magnetic fields produced by handheld hair dryers, stereo headsets, home sewing machines, and electric clocks. Bioelectromagnetics 23: 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kavet, R., Zaffanella, L.E., Daigle, J.P., and Ebi, K.L., 2000, The possible role of contact current in cancer risk associated with residential magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21: 538–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keshvari, J., and Lang, S., 2005, Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. Phys Med Biol 50: 4355–4369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kheifets, L., Repacholi, M., Sounders, R., and van Deventer, E., 2005a, The sensitivity of children to electromagnetic fields. Pediatrics 116: 303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kheifets, L., Sahk, J.D., Shimkhada, R., and Repacholi, M.H., 2005b, Developing policy in the face of scientific uncertainty: Interpreting 0.3 µT or 0.4 µT cutpoints from EMF epidemiologic studies. Risk Anal 25: 927–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knave, B.G., Wibom, R.I., Voss, M., Destrom, L.D., and Bergqvist, U., 1985, Work with video display terminals among office employees. I. Subjective symptoms and discomfort. Scand J Environ Health 11: 457–466.Google Scholar
  51. Koivisto, M., Haarala, C., Krause, C.M., Revonsuo, A., Laine, M., and Hämäläinen, H., 2001, GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics 22: 212–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kraus, T., Anders, M., Weber, A., Hermer, P., and Zschiesche, W., 1995, Zur Häufigkeit umweltbezogener Somatisierungsstörungen (on the frequency of environment – Related somatisation disorders). Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 30: 147–150.Google Scholar
  53. Kwon, M.S., Koivisto, M., Laine, M., and Hämäläinen, H., 2008, Perception of the electromagnetic field emitted by a mobile phone. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Landgrebe, M., Mauser, S., Langguth, B., Frick, U., Hajak, G., and Eichhammer, P., 2007, Altered cortical excitability in subjectively electrosensitive patients. Results of a pilot study. J Psychosom Res 62: 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Landgrebe, M., Frick, U., Hauser, S., Langguth, B., Rosner, R., Hajak, G., and Eichhammer, P., 2008, Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: Results of a case-control study. Psychol Med 26: 1–11.Google Scholar
  56. Leitgeb, N., 1994, Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Quantitative assessment of an ill-defined problem. Proc Cost 244 Workshop EHS, Graz, 68–74.Google Scholar
  57. Leitgeb, N., 1995, Elektrosensibilität. J VEÖ 98: 51–55.Google Scholar
  58. Leitgeb, N., 1998, Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc Int Workshop EMF and Non-Specific Health Symptoms, Graz, 8–16.Google Scholar
  59. Leitgeb, N., 2008, Mobile phones: Are children at higher risk? Wien Med Wochenschr 158: 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leitgeb, N., and Schröttner, J., 2002, Electric current perception study challenges electric safety limits. J Med Eng Technol 26: 168–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leitgeb, N., and Schröttner, J., 2003, Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Bioelectro-magnetics 24: 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., and Böhm, M., 2005a, Does “electromagnetic pollution” cause illness? Wien Med Wochenschr 155: 237–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., and Chech, R., 2005b, Electric current perception of the general population including children and elderly. J Med Eng Technol 29: 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., and Cech, R., 2006, Electric current perception of children: The role of age and gender. J Med Eng Technol 30: 306–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., and Cech, R., 2007, Perception of ELF electromagnetic fields: Excitation thresholds and inter-individual variability. Health Phys 92: 591–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leitgeb, N., Cech, R., Schröttner, J., Lehofer, P., Schmidpeter, U., and Rampetsreiter, M., 2008a, Magnetic emission ranking of electric appliances. A comprehensive market survey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 129: 439–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leitgeb, N., Cech, R., and Schröttner, J., 2008b, Electric emissions from electric appliances. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 129: 446–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., Cech, R., and Kerbl, R., 2008c, EMF-protection sleep study near mobile phone base stations. Somnology 12: 234–243.Google Scholar
  69. Levallois, P., Neutra, R., Lee, G., and Hristova, L., 2002, Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California. Environ Health Persp 110 (s4): 619–623.Google Scholar
  70. Levin, M., 1991, Perception of chassis leakage currents. Biomed Instrum Technol 25: 135–140.Google Scholar
  71. Linet, M.S., Hatch, E.E., Kleinerman, R.A., Robinson, L.L., Kaune, W.T., Friedman, D.R., Severson, R.K., Haines, C.M., Hartsock, C.T., Niwa, S., Wacholder, S., and Tarone, R.E., 1997, Residential exposure to magnetic fields and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. N Eng J Med 337: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lonne-Rahm, S., Andersson, B., Melin, L., Schultzberg, M., Arnetz, B., and Berg, M., 2000, Provocations with stress and electricity of patients with sensitivity to electricity. J Occup Environ Med 24: 387–394.Google Scholar
  73. Lyskov, E., Sandström, M., and Hansson Mild, K., 2001a, Neurophysiological study of patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity. Int J Psychophysiol 31: 233–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lyskov, E., Sandström, M., and Hansson Mild, K., 2001b, Provocation study of persons with perceived electrical hypersensitivity and controls using magnetic field exposure and recording of electrophysiological characteristics. Bioelectromagnetics 22: 457–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mild, K.H., Repacholi, M., vanDeventer E., and Ravazzani, P., Eds., 2006, Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc WHO Workshop, Prague, 2004.Google Scholar
  76. Müller, C.H., Krueger, H., and Schierz, C., 2002, Project NEMESIS: Perception of a 50 Hz electric and magnetic field at low intensities (laboratory experiment). Bioelectromagnetics 23(1): 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Müller, C.H., 2000, Projekt NEMESIS: ELF electric and magnetic fields and electrosensibility in Switzerland (in German). Thesis, ETH Zurich No 13903.Google Scholar
  78. Navarro, E.A., Segura, J., Gómez-Perretta, C., Portolés, M., Maestu, C., and Bardasano, J.L., 2002, Exposure from cellular phone base sations. A first approach. Proc 2nd Int Workshop Biol Eff EMFs, Rhode, 353–358.Google Scholar
  79. Nilsen, A., 1982, Facial rush in visual display unit operators. Contact Dermatitis 8: 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oftedal, G., Vistnes, AI., and Rygge, K., 1995, Skin symptoms after the reduction of electric fields from video display units. Scand J Work Environ Health 21: 335–344.Google Scholar
  81. Oftedal, G., Nyvang, A., and Moen, B.E., 1999, Long-term effects on symptoms by reducing electric fields from video display units. Scand J Work Environ Health 25: 415–421.Google Scholar
  82. Oftedal, G., Straume, A., Hohnsson, A., Stovner, L.J., 2007, Mobile phone headache: A double-blind sham-controlled provocation study. Cephalalgia 27: 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ogden, C.L., Kuczmarski, R.J., Flegal, K.M., Mei, Z., Guo, S., Wei, R., Grummer-Strawn, L.M., Curtin, L.R., Roche, A.F., and Johnsson, C.L., 2002, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 Growth Charts for the United States: Improvements to the 1977 National Center of Health Statistics Version. Pediatrics 109: 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Omura, Y., Losco, B.M., Omura, A.K., Yamamoto, S.Y., Ishikawa, H., Takeshige, C., Shimotsuura, Y., and Muteki, T., 1991, Chronic or intractable medical problems associated with prolonged exposure to unsuspected harmful environmental electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields radiating in the bedroom or workplace and their exacerbation by intake of harmful light and heavy metal from common sources. Int J Acupunct Electrotherapeut Res 16: 143–177.Google Scholar
  85. Osypka, P., 1963, Messtechnische Untersuchungen über Stromstärke, Einwirkungsdauer und Stromweg bei elektrischen Wechselstromunfällen an Mensch und Tier (metrological investigations in humans and animals on amplitude, exposure time and pathway in AC electric current accidents). Bedeutung und Auswertung für Starkstromanlagen. Elektromedizin 8: 153–214.Google Scholar
  86. Preece, A.W., Kaune, W., Grainger, P., Preece, S., and Golding, J., 1997, Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK. Phys Med Biol 42: 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rea, W.J., Pan, Y., Fenyves, E.J., Sujisawa, I., Samadi, N., and Ross, G.H., 1991, Electromagnetic field sensitivity. Bioelectricity 10: 241–246.Google Scholar
  88. Regel, S.J., Negovetic, S., and Röösli, M., 2006, UMTS base station-like exposure, well being and cognitive performance. Environ Health Perspect 114(8): 1270–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reilly, J.P., 1992, Electrical Stimulation and Electropathology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  90. Röösli, M., 2008, Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review. Environ Res 107: 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rubin, G.J., Javati, D.M., and Wessely, S., 2005, Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: A systematic review of provocational studies. Psychosom Med 67: 224–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rubin, G.J., Hahn, G., Everitt, B.S., Cleare, A.J., and Wessely, S., 2006a, Are some people sensitive to mobile phone signals? Within participants double blind randomised provocation study. BMJ 332(7546): 886–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rubin, G.J., Das Munshi, J., and Wessely, S., 2006b, A systematic review of tretments for electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Psychother Psychosom 75: 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sandström, M., Stenberg, B., and Hansson-Mind, K., 1993, Experiences of provocations with electric and magnetic fields. R Swed Acad Sci Rep 2: 62–66.Google Scholar
  95. Santini, R., Santini, P., LeRuz, P., Danze, J.M., and Seigne, M., 2003, Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Electromagn Biol Med 22: 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schreier, N., Huss, A., and Röösli, M., 2006, The prevalence of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic field exposure: A cross-sectional representative survey in Switzerland. Soz Präventiv Med 51: 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schröttner, J., Leitgeb, N., and Hillert, L., 2007, Investigation of electric current perception thresholds of different EHS groups. Bioelectromagnetics 28: 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schubert, M., Bornkessel, C., Wuschek, M., and Schmidt, P., 2007, Exposure of the general public to digital broadcast transmitters compared to analogue ones. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 124: 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schüz, J., 2005, Mobile phone use and exposures in children. Bioelectromagnetics 26(Suppl 7): S45–S50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schüz, J., Grigat, J.P., Störmer, B., Rippin, G., Brinkmann, K., and Michaelis, J., 2000, Extremely low frequency magnetic fields in Germany. Distribution of measurements, comparison of two methods for assessing exposure, and predictors for the occurrence of magnetic fields above background level. Radiat Environ Biophys 39: 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schüz, J., Petters, C., Egle, U.T., Jansen, B., Kimbel, R., Letzel, S., Nix, W., Schmidt, L.G., and Vollrath, L., 2006, The “Mainzer EMF-Wachhund”: Results from a watchdog project on self-reported health complaints attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 27: 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sjöberg, P., and Hamnerius, Y., 1995, Study of provoked hypersensitivity reactions from a VDU. Proc Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  103. Swanbeck, G., and Blecker, T., 1989, Skin problems from visual display units. Provocation of skin symptoms under experimental conditions. Acta Derm Venerol 69: 46–51.Google Scholar
  104. Tan, K.-S., and Johnson, D.L., 1990, Threshold of sensation for 60 hz leakage current. Result of a survey. Biomed Instrum Technol 24: 207–211.Google Scholar
  105. Thompson, G., 1933, Shock threshold fixes appliance insulation resistance. Electrical World 101: 793–795.Google Scholar
  106. UKCCS Investigators, 1999, Exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer. Lancet 354: 1925–1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ulmer, S., and Bruse, M., 2006, Supplementary Information on Electromagnetic Hyopersensitive. Final report German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. http://www.emf-forschungsprogramm.deGoogle Scholar
  108. Wang, T., Hawkins, L.H., and Rea, W.J., 1994, Effects of ELF magnetic fields on patients with chemical sensitivities. Proc Cost 244 Workshop EHS, Graz, 123–132.Google Scholar
  109. Wennberg, A., Franzen, O., and Paulsson, L.E., 1994, Electromagnetic field provocations of subjects with electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc Cost 244 Workshop EHS, Graz, 133–139.Google Scholar
  110. Wertheimer, N., and Leeper, N., 1979, Electric wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol 109: 273–284.Google Scholar
  111. WHO, 2005, Electromagnetic fields and public health. Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity. Fact Sheet No. 296.Google Scholar
  112. WHO, 2007, Environmental Health Criteria 238. Extremely Low Frequency Fields, Geneva.Google Scholar
  113. Wiart, J., Hadjem, A., Gadi, N., Bloch, I., Wong, M.F., Pradier, A., Lautru, D., Hanna, V.F., and Dale, C., 2005, Modeling of RF head exposure in children. Bioelectromagnetics 26(Suppl 7): S19–S30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilén, J., Johansson, A., Kalezic, N., Lyskov, E., and Sandström, M., 2006, Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics 27: 204–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zwamborn, A.P.M., Vossen, S.H.J., van Leersum, B.J.A., Ouwens, M.A., and Makel, W.N., 2003, Effects of global communication system radio-frequency fields on well-being and cognitive functions in human subjects with and without subjective symptoms. TNO Report 2003(FEL03-C148): 1–89.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Health Care EngineeringGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations