GITR: A Modulator of Immune Response and Inflammation

  • Giuseppe Nocentini
  • Carlo Riccardi
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 647)


Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related (GITR) protein belongs to Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily (TNFRSF) and stimulates both the acquired and innate immunity. It is expressed in several cells and tissues, including T and Natural Killer (NK) cells and is activated by its ligand, GITRL, mainly expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) and endothelial cells. GITR/GITRL system participates in the development of autoimmune/inflammatory responses and graft vs. host disease and potentiates response to infection and tumors. These effects are due to several concurrent mechanisms including: co-activation of effector T-cells, inhibition of regulatory T (Treg) cells, NK-cell co-activation, activation of macrophages, modulation of DC function and regulation of the extravasation process. In this chapter we describe: 1) the main structural features of GITR and GITRL, 2) the transduction pathways activated by GITR triggering, 3) the effects derived from GITR/GITRL system interaction, considering the interplay between the different cells of the immune system. Moreover, the potential use of GITR/GITRL modulators in disease treatment is discussed.


Treg Cell Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Graft Versus Host Disease Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Nocentini
    • 1
  • Carlo Riccardi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Sezione di FarmacologiaUniversità di PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Polo Scientifico e Didattico di TerniPerugiaItaly

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