The Gibbons pp 347-384 | Cite as

The Social Organization and Mating System of Khao Yai White-Handed Gibbons: 1992-2006

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

References

  1. Ahsan, M.F. 1995. Fighting between two females for a male in the hoolock gibbon. International Journal of Primatology 16:731–737.Google Scholar
  2. Arcese, P., Jongejan, G. and Sinclair, A. 1995. Behavioural flexibility in a small African antelope: group size and composition in the Oribi (Ourebia ourebi, Bovidae). Ethology 99:1–23.Google Scholar
  3. Barelli, C., Heistermann, M., Boesch, C. and Reichard, U.H. 2007. Sexual swellings in wild white-handed gibbon females (Hylobates lar) indicate the probability of ovulation. Hormones and Behavior 51:221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barelli, C., Heistermann, M., Boesch, C. and Reichard, U.H. 2008. Mating patterns and sexual swellings in pair-living and multimale groups of wild white-handed gibbons. Animal Behaviour 75:991–1001.Google Scholar
  5. Bartlett, T.Q. 2003. Intragroup and intergroup social interactions in white-handed gibbons. International Journal of Primatology 24:239–259.Google Scholar
  6. Bartlett, T.Q. 2007. The Hylobatidae: small apes of Asia. In Primates in Perspective, C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger and S.K. Bearder (eds.), pp. 274–289. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, P. and Owens, I. 2002. Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life History, Mating Systems, and Extinction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Birkhead, T.R. and Møller, A.P. 1996. Monogamy and sperm competition in birds. In Partnerships in Birds: The Study of Monogamy, J.M. Black (ed.), pp. 323–343. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Birkhead, T.R. and Møller, A.P. 1998. Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Black, J.M. 1996. Partnerships in Birds: The Study of Monogamy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bleisch, W. and Chen, N. 1991. Ecology and behavior of wild black crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor) in China with a reconsideration of evidence of polygyny. Primates 32:539–548.Google Scholar
  12. Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. 2000. The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Borries, C., Larney, E., Kreetiyutanont, K. and Koenig, A. 2002. The diurnal primate community in a dry evergreen forest in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Northeast Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 50:75–88.Google Scholar
  14. Borries, C., Launhardt, K., Epplen, C., Epplen, J.T. and Winkler, P. 1999. Males as infant protectors in Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) living in multimale groups-defense pattern, paternity, and sexual behaviour. Behavioral Ecology 46:350–356.Google Scholar
  15. Boyd, R. and Silk, J.B. 1997. How Humans Evolved, 1st Ed. New York: WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  16. Brockelman, W.Y. 1975. Gibbon populations and their conservation in Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 26:133–157.Google Scholar
  17. Brockelman, W.Y. and Gittins, S.P. 1984. Natural hybridization in the Hylobates lar species group: implications for speciation in gibbons. In The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology, H. Preuschoft, D.J. Chivers, W.Y. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds.), pp. 498–532. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brockelman, W.Y. and Schilling, D. 1984. Inheritance of stereotyped gibbon calls. Nature 312:634–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brockelman, W.Y. and Srikosamatara, S.P. 1984. Maintenance and evolution of social structure in gibbons. In The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology, H. Preuschoft, D.J. Chivers, W.Y. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds.), pp. 298–323. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Brockelman, W.Y., Reichard, U., Treesucon, U. and Raemaekers, J. 1998. Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 42:329–339.Google Scholar
  21. Byers, J.A. and Waits, L. 2006. Good genes selection in nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:16343–16345.Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter, C. 1940. A field study in Siam of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar). Comparative Psychology Monographs 16:1–201.Google Scholar
  23. Carranza, J., Alvarez, F. and Redondo, T. 1990. Territoriality as a mating strategy in red deer. Animal Behaviour 40:79–88.Google Scholar
  24. Chambers, K.E., Reichard, U.H., Moller, A., Nowak, K. and Vigilant, L. 2004. Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers using noninvasive samples from white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). American Journal of Primatology 64:19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheney, D., Seyfarth, R. and Smuts, B. 1986. Social relationships and social cognition in nonhuman primates. Science 234:1361–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chivers, D.J. 1974. The Siamang in Malaya: A Field Study of a Primate in Tropical Rain Forest. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  27. Chivers, D.J. and Raemaekers, J.J. 1980. Long-term changes in behavior. In Malayan Forest Primates: Ten Years Study in Tropical Rain Forest, D.J. Chivers (ed.), pp. 209–258. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, E.A., Reichard, U.H. and Zuberbühler, K. 2006. The syntax and meaning of wild gibbon songs. PLoS ONE 1:e73. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000073.Google Scholar
  29. Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1998. Reproductive skew, concessions and limited control. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:288–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cords, M. 2000. The number of males in guenon groups. In Primate Males: Causes and Consequences of Variation in Group Composition, P.M. Kappeler (ed.), pp. 84–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Cowlishaw, G. 1996. Sexual selection and information content in gibbon song bouts. Ethology 102:272–284.Google Scholar
  32. Cunningham, C.L., Anderson, J.R. and Mootnick, A.R. 2006. Object manipulation to obtain a food reward in hoolock gibbons, Bunopithecus hoolock. Animal Behaviour 71:621–629.Google Scholar
  33. Daly, M. 1978. The costs of mating. American Naturalist 112:771–774.Google Scholar
  34. Davies, A.G. 1992. Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Davies, N.B. and Lundberg, A. 1984. Food distribution and a variable mating system in the dunnock, Prunella modularis. Journal of Animal Ecology 53:895–912.Google Scholar
  36. Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V. 2006. Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A meta-analysis of nonhuman primate studies. Evolutionary Psychology 4:149–196.Google Scholar
  37. Digby, L.J. 1999. Sexual behavior and extragroup copulations in a wild population of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Folia Primatologica 70:136–145.Google Scholar
  38. Dunbar, R.I.M. 1995. The mating system of callitrichid primates: II. the impact of helpers. Animal Behaviour 50:1071–1089.Google Scholar
  39. Dunbar, R.I.M. 1998. The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6:178–190.Google Scholar
  40. Eberhard, W.G. 1998. Female roles in sperm competition. In Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection, T.R. Birkhead and A.P. Møller (eds.), pp. 91–116. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Ellefson, J.O. 1974. A natural history of white-handed gibbons in the Malayan peninsula. In Gibbon and Siamang, D.M. Rumbaugh (ed.), pp. 1–136. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  42. Fietz, J., Zischler, H., Schwiegk, C., Tomiuk, J., Dausmann, K.H. and Ganzhorn, J.U. 2000. High rates of extrapair young in the pair-living fat-tailed dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus medius. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49:8–17.Google Scholar
  43. Fischer, K. and Fiedler, K. 2001. Resource-based territoriality in the butterfly Lycaena hippothoe and environmentally induced behavioural shifts. Animal Behaviour 61:723–732.Google Scholar
  44. Fuentes, A. 1999. Re-evaluating primate monogamy. American Anthropologist 100:890–907.Google Scholar
  45. Fuentes, A. 2000. Hylobatid communities: changing views on pair bonding and social organization in hominoids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 43:33–60.Google Scholar
  46. Fuentes, A. 2002. Patterns and trends in primate pair bonds. International Journal of Primatology 23:953–978.Google Scholar
  47. Fürtbauer, I. 2006. Behaviour and endocrinology of free-living, maturing, male gibbons (Hylobates lar). (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Univ of Vienna).Google Scholar
  48. Geissmann, T. 2003. Circumfacial markings in siamang and evolution of the face ring in the Hylobatidae. International Journal of Primatology 24:143–158.Google Scholar
  49. Geissmann, T. and Orgeldinger, M. 2000. The relationship between duet songs and pair bonds in siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus). Animal Behaviour 60:805–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gittins, S.P. 1980. Territorial behavior in the agile gibbon. International Journal of Primatology 1:381–399.Google Scholar
  51. Goldizen, A.R. 2003. Social monogamy and its variations in callitrichids: do these relate to the costs of infant care? In Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals, U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (eds.), pp. 190–213. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Goldizen, A.R. and Terborgh, J. 1989. Demography and dispersal patterns of a tamarin population: possible causes of delayed breeding. American Naturalist 134:208–224.Google Scholar
  53. Goldizen, A.W. 1987. Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 20:99–109.Google Scholar
  54. Gomendio, M., Harcourt, A.H. and Roldán, E.R.S. 1998. Sperm competition in mammals. In Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection, T.R. Birkhead and A.P. Møller (eds.), pp. 667–756. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Griffith, S.C., Owens, I.P.F. and Thuman, K.A. 2002. Extra pair paternity in birds: a review of interspecific variation and adaptive function. Molecular Ecology 11:2195–2212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gromko, M.H., Newport, M.E.A. and Kortier, M.G. 1984. Sperm dependence of female receptivity to remating in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 38:1273–1282.Google Scholar
  57. Hacia, J.G. 2001. Genome of the apes. Trends in Genetics 17:637–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Haimoff, E.H. 1984a. Acoustic and organizational features of gibbon songs. In The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology, H. Preuschoft, D.J. Chivers, W.Y. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds.), pp. 333–353. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.Google Scholar
  59. Haimoff, E.H. 1984b. The organization of song in the agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis). Folia Primatologica 42:42–61.Google Scholar
  60. Haimoff, E.H. and Gittins, S.P. 1985. Individuality in the song of the agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis) of Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Primatology 8:239–247.Google Scholar
  61. Haimoff, E.H., Yang, X., He, S. and Chen, N. 1986. Census and survey of wild black crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor concolor) in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Folia Primatologica 46:205–214.Google Scholar
  62. Haimoff, E.H., Xiao-Yun, Y., Swing-Yin, H. and Nan, C. 1987. Conservation of gibbons in Yunnan Province, China. Oryx 21:168–173.Google Scholar
  63. Heymann, E.W. and Soini, P. 1999. Offspring number in pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea, in relation to group size and the number of adult males. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 46:400–404.Google Scholar
  64. Horton, K.E. and Caldwell , C.A. 2006. Visual co-orientation and expectations about attentional orientation in pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus). Behavioural Processes 72:65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hosken, D.J. and Stockley, P. 2003. Benefits of polyandry: a life history perspective. In Evolutionary Biology v. 33, R.J. MacIntyre and M.T. Clegg (eds.), pp. 173–194. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  66. Hrdy, S.B. 1979. Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethology and Sociobiology 1:13–40.Google Scholar
  67. Hrdy, S.B. 1986. Empathy, polyandry, and the myth of the coy female. In Feminist Approaches to Science, M. Bleier (ed.), pp. 119–146. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  68. Hrdy, S.B. 2000. The optimal number of fathers. Evolution, demography, and history in the shaping of female mate preferences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907:75–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hubrecht , R.C. 1985. Home range size and use and territorial behavior in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus jacchus, at the Tapacura Field Station, Recife, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 6:533–550.Google Scholar
  70. Jiang, X., Wang, Y. and Wang, Q. 1999. Coexistence of monogamy and polygyny in black-crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor). Primates 40:607–611.Google Scholar
  71. Johnstone, R.A. and Keller, L. 2000. How males can gain by harming their mates: sexual conflict, seminal toxins, and the cost of mating. American Naturalist 156:368–377.Google Scholar
  72. Jolly, A. 1985. The Evolution of Primate Behavior, 2nd Ed. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  73. Kappeler, M. 1984. Diet and feeding behaviour of the moloch gibbon. In The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology, H. Preuschoft, D.J. Chivers, W.Y. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds.), pp. 228–241. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Kappeler, P.M. and van Schaik, C.P. 2002. Evolution of primate social systems. International Journal of Primatology 23:707–740.Google Scholar
  75. Keller, L. and Reeve, H.K. 1995. Why do females mate with multiple males? The sexually selected sperm hypothesis. Advances in the Study of Behavior 24:291–315.Google Scholar
  76. Kerby, J., Elliott, S., Maxwell, J.F., Blakesley, D. and Anusarnsunthorn, V. 2000. Tree Seeds and Seedlings. Bangkok: FORRU Publishing Project.Google Scholar
  77. Kitamura, S., Yumoto, T., Poonswad, P., Noma, N., Chuailua, P., Plongmai, K., Maruhashi, T. and Suckasam, C. 2004. Pattern and impact of hornbill seed dispersal at nest trees in a moist evergreen forest in Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:545–553.Google Scholar
  78. Kleiman, D.G. 1981. Correlations among life history characteristics of mammalian species exhibiting two extreme forms of monogamy. In Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and Theory, R.D. Alexander and D.W. Tinkle (eds.), pp. 332–344. New York: Chiron Press.Google Scholar
  79. Kudo, H. and Dunbar, R.I.M. 2001. Neocortex size and social network size in primates. Animal Behaviour 62:711–722.Google Scholar
  80. Lappan, S. 2005. Biparental care and male reproductive strategies in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra. (unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, New York University).Google Scholar
  81. Lappan, S. 2007a. Social relationships among males in multi-male siamang groups. International Journal of Primatology 28:369–387.Google Scholar
  82. Lappan, S. 2007b. Patterns of dispersal in Sumatran siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): preliminary mtDNA evidence suggests more frequent male than female dispersal to adjacent groups. American Journal of Primatology 69:692–698.Google Scholar
  83. Lazaro-Perea, C. 2001. Intergroup interactions in wild common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus: territorial defence and assessment of neighbours. Animal Behaviour 62:11–21.Google Scholar
  84. Leighton, D.R. 1987. Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In Primate Societies, B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham and T.T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 135–145. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  85. Lewis, R.J. 2002. Beyond dominance the importance of leverage. Quarterly Review of Biology 77:149–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lynam, A.J., Round, P.D. and Brockelman, W.Y. 2006. Status of Birds and Large Mammals in Thailand’s Dong Phayayen – Khao Yai Forest Complex. Bangkok: Biodiversity Research and Training (BRT) Program and Wildlife Conservation Society.Google Scholar
  87. Malone, N.M. and White, F.J. 2008. The socioecology of Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch): tests of competing hypotheses. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 46(Suppl.):148.Google Scholar
  88. Marshall, J.T., Ross, B.A. and Chantharojvong, S. 1972. The species of gibbons in Thailand. Journal of Mammalogy 53:479–486.Google Scholar
  89. Martin, P.M. and Bateson, P.B. 1993. Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mason, W.A. 1966. Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus moloch: a preliminary report. Tulane Studies in Zoology 13:23–28.Google Scholar
  91. Mitani, J.C. 1984. The behavioral regulation of monogamy in gibbons (Hylobates muelleri). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 15:225–229.Google Scholar
  92. Mitani, J.C. 1990a. Experimental field studies of Asian ape social systems. International Journal of Primatology 11:103–126.Google Scholar
  93. Mitani, J.C. 1990b. Demography of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis). International Journal of Primatology 11:411–424.Google Scholar
  94. Müller, A.E. and Thalmann, U. 2000. Origin and evolution of primate social organisation: a reconstruction. Biological Reviews 75:405–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nettlebeck, A.R. 1993. Zur Öko-Ethologie Freilebender Weißhandgibbons (Hylobates lar) in Thailand. (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, University of Hamburg).Google Scholar
  96. Neudenberger, J. 1993. Monogamie als Paarungssystem: Eine Fallstudie am Weißhandgibbon (Hylobates lar) im Khao Yai Nationalpark, Thailand. (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, University of Göttingen).Google Scholar
  97. Nunn, C. and Altizer, S.M. 2004. Sexual selection, behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases. In Sexual Selection in Primates: New and Comparative Perspectives, P.M. Kappeler and C.P. van Schaik (eds.), pp. 117–130. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Nunn, C., Gittleman, J.L. and Antonovics, J. 2000. Promiscuity and the primate immune system. Science 290:1168–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Palombit, R.A. 1992. Pair bonds and monogamy in wild siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in northern Sumatra. (unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis).Google Scholar
  100. Palombit, R.A. 1993. Lethal territorial aggression in a monogamous primate. American Journal of Primatology 31:311–318.Google Scholar
  101. Palombit, R.A. 1994a. Dynamic pair bonds in hylobatids: implications regarding monogamous social systems. Behaviour 128:65–101.Google Scholar
  102. Palombit, R.A. 1994b. Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous ape. Animal Behaviour 47:721–723.Google Scholar
  103. Palombit, R.A. 1996. Pair bonds in monogamous apes: a comparison of the siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Behaviour 133:321–356.Google Scholar
  104. Parker, G.A. 1979. Sexual selection and sexual conflict. In Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects, M.S. Blum and N.A. Blum (eds.), pp. 123–166. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Põldmaa, T. and Holder, K. 1997. Behavioural correlates of monogamy in the noisy miner, Manorina melanocephala. Animal Behaviour 54:571–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Raemaekers, J.J. and Raemaekers, P.M. 1985. Field playback of loud calls to gibbons (Hylobates lar): territorial, sex-specific and species-specific responses. Animal Behaviour 33:481–493.Google Scholar
  107. Raemaekers, J.J., Raemaekers, P.M. and Haimoff, E.H. 1984. Loud calls of the gibbon (Hylobates lar): repertoire, organisation and context. Behaviour 91:146–189.Google Scholar
  108. Reichard, U. 1995a. Sozial- und Fortpflanzungsverhalten von Weißhandgibbons (Hylobates lar): Eine Freilandstudie im thailändischen Khao Yai Regenwald. (unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Cuvillier Verlag).Google Scholar
  109. Reichard, U. 1995b. Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology 100:99–112.Google Scholar
  110. Reichard, U. 1998. Sleeping sites, sleeping places, and sleeping behaviour of gibbons (Hylobates lar). American Journal of Primatology 46:35–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Reichard, U.H. 2003a. Monogamy: past and present. In Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans, and Other Mammals, U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (eds.), pp. 3–25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Reichard, U.H. 2003b. Social monogamy in gibbons: the male perspective. In Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans, and Other Mammals, U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (eds.), pp. 190–213. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Reichard, U.H. and Barelli, C. 2008. Life history and reproductive strategies of khao Yai white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar): implications for social evolution in apes. International Journal of Primatology 29:823–844.Google Scholar
  114. Reichard, U. and Sommer, V. 1997. Group encounters in wild gibbons (Hylobates lar): agonism, affiliation, and the concept of infanticide. Behaviour 134:1135–1174.Google Scholar
  115. Reichard, U.H. and Barelli, C. 2008. Life history and reproductive strategies of Khao Yai white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar): implications for social evolution in apes. International Journal of Primatology 29:823–844.Google Scholar
  116. Reichard, U.H. and Boesch, C. (ed.) 2003. Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Relethford, J. 1996. The Human Species: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 3rd ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing.Google Scholar
  118. Rendall, D., Rodman, P.S. and Emond, R.E. 1996. Vocal recognition of individuals and kin in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour 51:1007–1015.Google Scholar
  119. Richardson, P.R.K. 1987. Aardwolf mating system: overt cuckoldry in an apparently monogamous mammal. South African Journal of Science 83:405–412.Google Scholar
  120. Robbins, M.M., Robbins, A.M., Gerald-Steklis, N. and Steklis, H.D. 2005. Long-term dominance relationships in female mountain gorillas: strength, stability and determinants of rank. Behaviour 142:779–809.Google Scholar
  121. Ross, C. and Reeve, N. 2003. Survey and census methods: population distribution and density. In Field and Laboratory Methods in Primatology, J.M. Setchell and D.J. Curtis (eds.), pp. 90–109. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Savini, T., Boesch, C. and Reichard, U.H. 2008. Home-range characteristics and the influence of seasonality on female reproduction in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Savini, T., Boesch, C. and Reichard, U.H. in press. Varying ecological quality influences the probability of polyandry in Khao Yai white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). Biotropica.Google Scholar
  124. Schülke, O. 2005. Evolution of pair-living in Phaner furcifer. International Journal of Primatology 26:903–918.Google Scholar
  125. Schülke, O., Kappeler, P.M. and Zischler, H. 2004. Small testes size despite high extra-pair paternity in the pair-living nocturnal primate Phaner furcifer. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55:293–301.Google Scholar
  126. Schwab, D. 2000. A preliminary study of spatial distribution and mating system of pygmy mouse lemurs (Microcebus cf myoxinus). American Journal of Primatology 51:41–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Seddon, N., Tobias, J.A. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2003. Group living, breeding behaviour and territoriality in the Subdesert Mesite Monias benschi. Ibis 145:277–294.Google Scholar
  128. Sheeran, L.K. 1993. A preliminary study of the behavior and socio-ecology of black gibbons (Hylobates concolor) in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. (unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University).Google Scholar
  129. Sillero-Zubiri, C., Gottelli, D. and Macdonald, D.W. 1996. Male philopatry, extra pack copulations and inbreeding avoidance in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38:331–340.Google Scholar
  130. Singleton, I. and van Schaik, C.P. 2002. The social organization of a population of Sumatran orang-utans. Folia Primatologica 73:1–20.Google Scholar
  131. Soltis, J. 1997. Sexual selection in Japanese macaques I: female mate choice or male sexual coercion? Animal Behaviour 54:725–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sommer, V. and Reichard, U. 2000. Rethinking monogamy: the gibbon case. In Primate Males, P.M. Kappeler (ed.), pp. 159–168. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Srikosamatara, S. 1980. Ecology and behaviour of the pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) in Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary. (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Mahidol University).Google Scholar
  134. Srikosamatara, S. 1984. Ecology of pileated gibbons in south-east Thailand. In The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology, H. Preuschoft, D.J. Chivers, W.Y. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds.), pp. 242–257. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Srikosamatara, S. and Brockelman, W.Y. 1987. Polygyny in a group of pileated gibbons via a familial route. International Journal of Primatology 8:389–393.Google Scholar
  136. Stacey, P.B. 1982. Female promiscuity and male reproductive success in social birds and mammals. American Naturalist 120:51–64.Google Scholar
  137. Stacey, P.B. and Koenig, W.D. 1990. Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-term Studies of Ecology and Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Suwanvecho U (2003) Ecology and intraspecific relations of two sympatric Hylobates species (H. lar and H. pileatus) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Mahidol University, Bangkok, Unpublished PhD thesis.Google Scholar
  139. Tenaza, R.R. 1975. Territory and monogamy among Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in Siberut Island, Indonesia. Folia Primatologica 24:60–80.Google Scholar
  140. Thom, M.D., Macdonald, D.W., Mason, G.J., Pedersen, V. and Johnson, P. 2004. Female American mink, Mustela vison, mate multiply in a free-choice environment. Animal Behaviour 67:975–984.Google Scholar
  141. Tilson, R.L. 1979. Behavior of hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) during different seasons in Assam, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 79:1–16.Google Scholar
  142. Treecuson, U. and Raemaekers, J.J. 1984. Group formation in gibbons through displacement of an adult. International Journal of Primatology 5:387.Google Scholar
  143. Treesucon, U. 1984. Social development of young gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Mahidol University).Google Scholar
  144. Trivers, R.L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. In Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, B. Campbell (ed.), pp. 136–179. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  145. Uhde, N.L. and Sommer, V. 2002. Antipredatory behavior in gibbons (Hylobates lar, Khao Yai/Thailand). In Eat or be Eaten: Predator Sensitive Foraging among Primates, L.E. Miller (ed.), pp. 268–291. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Ujhelyi, M. 2000. On the evolution of the capacity for mirror-self-recognition. Selection 1:165–172.Google Scholar
  147. UNESCO World Heritage Center (2005). the World Heritage Newsetter 50.Google Scholar
  148. van Schaik, C.P. and Dunbar, R.I.M. 1990. The evolution of monogamy in large primates: a new hypothesis and some crucial tests. Behaviour 115:30–61.Google Scholar
  149. van Schaik, C.P. and Janson, C.H. (ed.) 2000. Infanticide by Males and its Implications. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  150. van Schaik, C.P., Preuschoft, S. and Watts, D.P. 2004. Great ape social systems. In The Evolution of Thought, A. Russon and D. Begun (eds.), pp. 190–209. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Westneat, D.F., Sherman, P.W. and Morton, M.L. 1990. The ecology and evolution of extra-pair copulations in birds. In Current Ornithology V. 7, D.M. Power (ed.), pp. 331–369. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  152. Whitington, C. 1990. Seed dispersal by white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. (unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Mahidol University).Google Scholar
  153. Whittingham, L.A., Dunn, P.O. and Magrath, R.D. 1997. Relatedness, polyandry and extra-group paternity in the cooperatively-breeding white-browed scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 40:261–270.Google Scholar
  154. Williams, G.C. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Wittig, R. and Boesch, C. 2003. Food competition and linear dominance hierarchy among female chimpanzees of the Taï National Park. International Journal of Primatology 24:847–867.Google Scholar
  156. Wolff, J.O. and Dunlap, A.S. 2002. Multi-male mating, probability of conception, and litter size in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Behavioural Processes 57:105–110.Google Scholar
  157. Yasui, Y. 1997. A “good sperm” model can explain the evolution of costly multiple mating by females. American Naturalist 149:573–584.Google Scholar
  158. Zabel, C.J. and Taggart, S.J. 1989. Shift in red fox, Vulpes vulpes, mating system associated with El Niño in the Bering Sea. Animal Behaviour 38:830–838.Google Scholar
  159. Zeh, J.A. and Zeh, D.W. 1997. The evolution of polyandry II: post-copulatory defences against genetic incompatibility. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London – Series B: Biological Sciences 264:69–75.Google Scholar
  160. Zinner, D., Hilgartner, R.D., Kappeler, P.M., Pietsch, T. and Ganzhorn, J.U. 2003. Social organization of Lepilemur ruficaudatus. International Journal of Primatology 24:869–888.Google Scholar
  161. Zuberbühler, K. and Byrne, R.W. 2006. Social cognition. Current Biology 16:786–790.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologySouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations