The Gibbons pp 327-345 | Cite as

Patterns of Infant Care in Wild Siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in Southern Sumatra

  • Susan Lappan
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Parental care—parental behavior that is likely to increase offspring fitness (Clutton-Brock 1991)—is an important component of reproduction for many animals. Among mammals, internal gestation and lactation constrain females to be the more investing sex, particularly during the initial stages of a reproductive attempt (Clutton-Brock 1989). The costs and benefits of abandonment or neglect of offspring differ between the sexes for most mammal species due to this heavy early female investment. Therefore, the interaction between male and female reproductive strategies in mammals has generally resulted in male strategies that prioritize mating effort over parental investment (Trivers 1972; Clutton-Brock 1989). Uniparental female care is universal in solitary mammals, and is the most common pattern in social mammals (Kleiman and Malcolm 1981; Clutton-Brock 1991). Nonetheless, biparental care does occur in a minority of mammal species. Biparental care is most common among...


Social Play Infant Care Subordinate Male Male Care Biparental Care 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Funding for this research was provided by the Leakey Foundation, Sigma Xi, the Fulbright Student Program, New York University, the New York Consortium for Evolutionary Primatology, and the Margaret and Herman Sokol Foundation, and during the writing stages, by Ewha University and the Amore Pacific Foundation. Permission to conduct research in Indonesia was granted by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and permission to conduct research in the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park was granted by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry’s Department for the Protection and Conservation of Nature (PHKA). I thank the American–Indonesian Exchange Foundation (AMINEF), Universitas Indonesia and the Wildlife Conservation Society–Indonesia Program, and especially Nelly Paliama, Noviar Andayani, Tim O’Brien, and Margaret Kinnaird, for considerable logistical assistance in Indonesia, and Anton Nurcayho, Maya Dewi Prasetyaningrum, Mohammad Iqbal, Teguh Priyanto, Tedy Presetya Utama, Janjiyanto, Sutarmin, Martin Trisunu Wibowo, and Abdul Roshyd for their assistance in the field. Finally, I thank Danielle Whittaker for many helpful comments on this manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Behavior and Ecology, Department of EcoSciencesEwha UniversityDaehyun-dongRepublic of Korea

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