Spherical Kikuchi Maps and Other Rarities

Chapter

Spheres, or more accurately, spherical surfaces, are important for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Electron backscatter patterns (EBSPs) and pole figure and misorientation axis data are ideally suited to display on the surface of a sphere.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The assistance of Dr. Aimo Winkelmann in producing the ferrite EBSP simulations and for providing a copy of his beautiful ECP simulation program is gratefully acknowledged, as are the many contributions, over the decades, of Dr Peter Quested, National Physical Laboratory. Robert Schwarzer is thanked for bringing the 1937 Finch and Wilman paper to my attention, as is Carol Trager-Cowan for many discussions on EBSP, RHEED, and GaN.

References

  1. Alam MN, Blackman M, Pashley DW (1954) High angle Kikuchi patterns. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series 221A:224–242CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Boersch H (1937) Über Bänder bei Elektronenbeugung, Z Techn Phys 18:574–578Google Scholar
  3. Braun W (1999) Applied RHEED. Springer, Berlin, ISBN 3-540-65199-3Google Scholar
  4. Capel A (2001) Image mosaicing and super-resolution. D. Phil. thesis, Robotics Research Group, Department of Engineering Science, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Day AP (1993) Developments in the EBSP technique and their application to grain imaging. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Day AP (2008) Spherical EBSD. J Microsc 230(Pt 3):472–486CrossRefPubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. Day AP, Quested TE (1999) A comparison of grain imaging and measurement using horizontal orientation and colour orientation contrast imaging, electron backscatter pattern and optical methods. J Microsc 195(Pt 3):186–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Day AP, Shafirstein G (1996) Assessment of local residual strain by electron backscatter patterns and nanoindentation. Mater Sci Tech 12:873Google Scholar
  9. de Graef M (1998) A novel way to represent the 32 crystallographic point groups. J Mater Educ 20:31–42Google Scholar
  10. de Graef M (2003) Introduction to conventional transmission electron microscopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 0-521-62006-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Graef M, McHenry ME (2007) Structure of materials: An introduction to crystallography, diffraction, and symmetry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 978-0-521-65151-6MATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Dingley DJ, Baba-Kishi KZ, Randle V (1995) Atlas of backscattering Kikuchi diffraction patterns. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK, ISBN 0-7503-021207Google Scholar
  13. Finch GI, Wilman H (1937) The study of surface structure by electron diffraction. Erg Exakt Naturwiss 16:353–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goehner RP, Michael JR (1996) Phase identification in a scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron Kikuchi patterns. J Res Natl Inst Stan 101:301–308Google Scholar
  15. Hartley R, Zissermann A (2003) Multiple view geometry in computer vision, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 0-521-54051-8Google Scholar
  16. Hawkes PW (ed) (2007) Advances in imaging and electron physics, vol. 145. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, ISBN 0-12-373907-1Google Scholar
  17. Heckbert PS (1989) Fundamentals of texture mapping and image warping. Master’s thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  18. Hough PVC (1962) Method and means for recognizing complex patterns. US patent 3,069,654Google Scholar
  19. Ichimiya A, Cohen P (2004) Reflection high energy electron diffraction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 0-521-45373-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Imiya A, Sugaya H, Torii A, Mochizuki Y (2005) Variational analysis of spherical images. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on computer analysis of images and patterns (CAIP 2005). Springer, Versailles, France, ISBN 032-9743Google Scholar
  21. Joy DC (1974) Electron channelling patterns in the scanning electron microscope. In: Holt DB, Muir MD, Boswarva IM, Grant PR (eds) Quantitative scanning electron microscopy. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Krieger Lassen NC (1994) Automated determination of crystal orientations from electron backscattering patterns. Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Mathematical Modelling, The Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  23. Krieger Lassen NC, Juul Jensen D, Conradsen K (1992) Image processing procedures for analysis of electron backscatter patterns. Scan Microsc 6:115–121Google Scholar
  24. Le Page Y (1992) Ab initio primitive cell parameters from single convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns: A converse route to the identification of microcrystals with electrons. Microsc Res Techniq 21:158–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leavers VF (1992) Shape detection in computer vision using the Hough transform. Springer-Verlag, New York, ISBN 3-540-19723-0Google Scholar
  26. Leavers VF, Boyce JF (1986) An implementation of the Hough transform using a linear array processor in conjunction with a PDP/11 microprocessor. NPL report DITC 74/86Google Scholar
  27. Lloyd GE, Ferguson CC (1986) A spherical electron-channelling pattern map for use in quartz petrofabric analysis. J Struct Geol 8(5):517–526CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Maurice C, Fortunier R (2008) A 3D Hough transform for indexing EBSD and Kossel patterns. J Microsc 230(Pt 3): 520–529CrossRefPubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. McKie D, McKie C (1986) Essentials of crystallography. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, ISBN 0-632-01574-8Google Scholar
  30. Michael JR, Goehner RP (1993) Crystallographic phase identification in the scanning electron microscope: Backscattered electron Kikuchi patterns imaged with a CCD-based detector. MSA Bull 23:168Google Scholar
  31. Michael JR, Eades JA (2000) Use of reciprocal lattice layer spacing in electron backscatter diffraction pattern analysis. Ultramicroscopy 81:67–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ozawa L (2007) Cathodioluminescence and photoluminescence. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, ISBN-42005-270-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peng LM, Dudarev SL, Whelan MJ (2004) High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, UK, ISBN 0-19-8500742Google Scholar
  34. Prior DJ, Wheeler J (1999) Feldspar fabrics in a greenschist facies albite-rich mylonite from electron backscatter diffraction. Tectonophysics 303:29–49CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Quested PN, Henderson PJ, McLean M (1988) Observations of deformation and fracture heterogeneities in a nickel-base superalloy using electron backscattering patterns. Acta Metall 36:2743–2752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Randle V, Engler O (2000) Introduction to texture analysis: macrotexture, microtexture and orientation mapping. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, ISBN 90-5699-224-4Google Scholar
  37. Reimer L (1998) Scanning electron microscopy: physics of image formation and microanalysis, 2nd ed. Springer, Berlin, ISBN 3-540-63976-4Google Scholar
  38. Reimer L, Heilers U, Saliger G (1986) Kikuchi band contrast in diffraction patterns recorded by transmitted and backscattered electrons. Scanning 8:101–118Google Scholar
  39. Roberts PTE, Chapman JN, MacLeod AM (1982) A CCD-based image recording system for the CTEM. Ultramicroscopy 8:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Samet H (2006) Foundations of multidimensional and metric data structures. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, ISBN 0-12-369446-9MATHGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz AJ, Kumar M, Adams BL (2000) Electron backscatter diffraction in materials science. Kluwer Academic, New York, ISBN 0-306-46487-XGoogle Scholar
  42. Spence JCH, Zuo JM (1988) Large dynamic range, parallel detection system for electron diffraction and imaging. Rev Sci Instrum 59(9):2102–2105CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Spence JCH, Zuo JM (1992) Electron microdiffraction. Plenum Press, New York, ISBN 0-306-44262-0Google Scholar
  44. Steeds JW, Vincent R (1983) Use of high-symmetry zone axes in electron diffraction in determining crystal point and space groups. J Appl Cryst 16:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stott DE, Wise MLH, Hutchinson WB (1975) A distortion-free map for use with electron channelling patterns. J Microsc 105:305–307Google Scholar
  46. Torii A, Imiya A (2005) The randomized Hough transform for spherical images. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on computer analysis of images and patterns (CAIP 2005). Springer, Versailles, France, ISBN 032-9743Google Scholar
  47. Villert S, Maurice C, Wyona C, Fortunier R (2008) Accuracy assessment of elastic strain measurement by EBSD. J Microsc in pressGoogle Scholar
  48. Wallace RS (1985) A modified Hough transform for lines. In: Proceedings of the IEEE computer society conference on computer vision pattern recognition. San Francisco, pp 665–667Google Scholar
  49. Wilkinson AJ, Meaden G, Dingley DJ (2006) High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: New levels of sensitivity. Ultramicroscopy 106:307–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Winkelmann A (2003) Elektronenbeugungsmethoden zur Strukturanalyse epitaktischer Siliziumkarbidschichten. Dissertation: Jena Universität, Physikalisch-Astronomische FakultätGoogle Scholar
  51. Winkelmann A (2008) Dynamical effects of anisotropic inelastic scattering in electron backscatter diffraction. Ultramicroscopy 108:1546–1550Google Scholar
  52. Winkelmann A, Schröter B, Richter W (2004) Electron diffraction methods for the analysis of silicon carbide surfaces and the controlled growth of polytype heterostructures. J Phys-Condens Mat 16:S1555–S1578CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Winkelmann A, Trager-Cowan C, Sweeney F, Day AP, Parbrook P (2007) Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Ultramicroscopy 107(4):414–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wolberg G (1992) Digital image warping, 3rd ed. IEEE Computer Society Press, New York, ISBN 0-8186-8944-7Google Scholar
  55. Wright SI, Adams BL (1992) Automatic analysis of electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Metall Trans 23A:759–767Google Scholar
  56. Yen WM, Shionoya S, Yamamoto H (2007) Practical applications of phosphors. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, ISBN 1-4200-4369-2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aunt Daisy Scientific Ltd.CambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations