Dynamical Simulation of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Patterns

  • Aimo WinkelmannEmail author

To extract the maximum amount of information from experimental electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns, it is necessary to realistically model the physical processes that lead to the formation of the characteristic diffraction features in the form of Kikuchi bands and lines. Whereas the purely geometrical relations in the observed networks of bands and lines can be explained by mapping out Bragg’s law for the relevant reflecting lattice planes, the dynamical theory of electron diffraction is needed to explain the observed intensities. This theory takes into account the fact that electrons interact strongly with matter, which leads to multiple elastic and inelastic scattering of the electron waves in a crystal.


Inelastic Scattering Bloch Wave Experimental Pattern Contrast Reversal EBSD Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I would like to thank Carol Trager-Cowan (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow) for starting my involvement with EBSD. Austin P. Day and Gert Nolze are acknowledged for supplying experimental patterns and for inspiring discussions on various aspects of electron backscatter diffraction. Part of this work was supported by the Royal Society of Edinburgh.


  1. Alam MN, Blackman M, Pashley DW (1954) High-angle Kikuchi patterns. Proc R Soc Lond A 221(1145):224–242, URL CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen LJ, Rossouw CJ (1989) Effects of thermal diffuse scattering and surface tilt on diffraction and channeling of fast electrons in CdTe. Phys Rev B 39(12):8313–8321, DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB. 39.8313CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen LJ, Rossouw CJ (1990) Absorptive potentials due to ionization and thermal diffuse scattering by fast electrons in crystals. Phys Rev B 42(18):11,644–11,654, DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.42. 11644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chukhovskii FN, Alexanjan LA, Pinsker ZG (1973) Dynamical treatment of Kikuchi patterns. Acta Cryst A 29:38, DOI 10.1107/S0567739473000094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deal A, Hooghan T, Eades A (2008) Energy-filtered electron backscatter diffraction. Ultramicroscopy 108:116–125, DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2007.03.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dudarev SL, Peng LM (1993a) Effects of bulk resonance diffraction on inelastic scattering of high energy electrons by crystals. Proc R Soc Lond A 440:117–133, DOI 10.1098/rspa.1993.0007CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Dudarev SL, Peng LM (1993b) Theory of bulk resonance diffraction in THEED. Proc R Soc Lond A 440:95–115, DOI 10.1098/rspa.1993.0006CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Dudarev SL, Peng LM, Whelan MJ (1993) Correlations in space and time and dynamical diffraction of high-energy electrons by crystals. Phys Rev B 48:13,408, DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.48. 13408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dudarev SL, Rez P, Whelan MJ (1995) Theory of electron backscattering from crystals. Phys Rev B 51:3397, DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.51.3397CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Hall CR (1970) On the thickness dependence of Kikuchi band contrast. Phil Mag 175:63–72, DOI 10.1080/1478643 7008228151CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Humphreys CJ (1979) The scattering of fast electrons by crystals. Rep Prog Phys 42(11):1825–1887, DOI 10.1088/0034–4885/42/11/002CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Kainuma Y (1955) The theory of Kikuchi patterns. Acta Cryst 8:247, DOI 10.1107/ S0365110X55000832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marthinsen K, Høier R (1986) Many-beam effects and phase information in electron channeling patterns. Acta Cryst A 42:484–492, DOI 10.1107/S0108767386098835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marthinsen K, Høier R (1988) Determination of crystal symmetry from electron channeling patterns. Acta Cryst A 44: 693–700, DOI 10.1107/S0108767388003538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Michael JR, Eades JA (2000) Use of reciprocal lattice layer spacing in electron backscatter diffraction pattern analysis. Ultramicroscopy 81:67–81, DOI 10.1016/S0304–3991(99)00119–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Peng LM, Ren G, Dudarev SL, Whelan MJ (1996) Debye-Waller factors and absorptive scattering factors of elemental crystals. Acta Crystallographica Section A 52(3):456–470, DOI 10.1107/S010876739600089XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pogany AP, Turner PS (1968) Reciprocity in electron diffraction and microscopy. Acta Cryst A 24:103–109, DOI 10.1107/S0567739468000136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Reimer L (1998) Scanning electron microscopy—physics of image formation and microanalysis. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  19. Rossouw CJ, Miller PR, Josefsson TW, Allen LJ (1994) Zone axis backscattered electron contrast for fast electrons. Phil Mag A 70(6):985–998, DOI 10.1080/01418619408242944CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Spence JCH, Zuo JM (1992) Electron microdiffraction. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Weickenmeier A, Kohl H (1991) Computation of absorptive factors for high energy electron diffraction. Acta Cryst A 47:590–597, DOI 10.1107/S0108767391004804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Winkelmann A (2008) Dynamical effects of anisotropic inelastic scattering in electron backscatter diffraction. Ultramicroscopy 108:1546–1550, DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic. 2008.05.002Google Scholar
  23. Winkelmann A, Trager-Cowan C, Sweeney F, Day AP, Parbrook P (2007) Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Ultramicroscopy 107: 414–421, DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2006.10.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zuo J, Weickenmeier A (1995) On the beam selection and convergence in the Bloch-wave method. Ultramicroscopy 57(4):375–383, DOI 10.1016/0304 3991(94)00190-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für MikrostrukturphysikHalle (Saale)Germany

Personalised recommendations