Effect of Severe Hypoxia on Prefrontal Cortex and Muscle Oxygenation Responses at Rest and During Exhaustive Exercise

  • Thomas Rupp
  • Stéphane Perrey
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 645)

Abstract

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may provide valuable insight into the determinants of exercise performance. We examined the effects of severe hypoxia on cerebral (prefrontal lobe) and muscle (gastrocnemius) oxygenation at rest and during a fatiguing task. After a 15-min rest, 15 healthy subjects (age 25.3 ± 0.9 yr) performed a sustained contraction of the ankle extensors at 40% of maximal voluntary force until exhaustion. The contraction was performed at two different fractions of inspired O2 fraction (FIO2 = 0.21/0.11) in randomized and single-blind fashion. Cerebral and muscle oxy-(HbO2) deoxy-(HHb) total-hemoglobin (HbTot) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were monitored continuously by NIRS. Arterial O2 saturation (SpO2) was estimated by pulse oximetry throughout the protocol. Muscle TOI did not differ between normoxia and hypoxia after the 15-min rest, whereas SpO2 and cerebral TOI significantly dropped (-6.5 ± 0.9% and -3.9 ± 1.0%, respectively, P<0.05) in hypoxia. The muscle NIRS changes during exercise were similar in normoxia and hypoxia, whereas the increased cerebral HbTot and HbO2 near exhaustion were markedly reduced in hypoxia. In conclusion, although FIO2 had no significant effect on endurance time, NIRS patterns near exhaustion in hypoxia differed from normoxia.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F. F. Jöbsis, Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters, Science 198(4323), 1264-1267 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, M. Ferrari and E. Gratton, Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by frequency-domain near-infra-red spectrometer, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 33(2), 228-230 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Shibuya and M. Tachi, Oxygenation in the motor cortex during exhaustive pinching exercise, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 153(3), 261-266 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Ferrari, L. Mottola and V. Quaresima, Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy, Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463-487 (2004).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. B. Nielsen, R. Boushel, P. Madsen and N. H. Secher, Cerebral desaturation during exercise reversed by O2 supplementation, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277(3), H1045-1052 (1999).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. W. Subudhi, A. C. Dimmen and R. C. Roach, Effects of acute hypoxia on cerebral and muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise, J. Appl. Physiol. 103(1), 177-183 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Amann, L. M. Romer, A. W. Subudhi, D. F. Pegelow and J. A. Dempsey, Severity of arterial hypoxemia affects the relative contributions of peripheral muscle fatigue to exercise performance, J. Physiol. 581(Pt1), 389-403 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Bhambhani, R. Malik and S. Mookerjee, Cerebral oxygenation declines at exercise intensities above the respiratory compensation threshold, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 156(2), 196-202 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. N. Ainslie, A. Barach, C. Murrell, M. Hamlin, J. Hellemans and S. Ogoh, Alterations in cerebral autoregulation and cerebral blood flow velocity during acute hypoxia: rest and exercise, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292(2), H976-983 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. E. Peltonen, J. M. Kowalchuk, D. H. Paterson, D. S. Delorey, G. R. Dumanoir, R. J. Petrella and J. K. Shoemaker, Cerebral and muscle tissue oxygenation in acute hypoxic ventilatory response test, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 155(1), 71-81 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy and E. O. Reynolds, Quantification of adult cerebral hemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy, J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2753-2760 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Duncan, J. Meek, M. Clemence, C. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope and D. Delpy, Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy, Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. K. Miller and J. D. Cohen, An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 167-202 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Suzuki, I. Miyai, T. Ono, I. Oda, I. Konishi, T. Kochiyama and K. Kubota, Prefrontal and premotor cortices are involved in adapting walking and running speed on the treadmill: an optical imaging study, Neuroimage 23(3), 1020-1026 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Rasmussen, E. A. Dawson, L. Nybo, J. J. van Lieshout, N. H. Secher and A. Gjedde, Capillaryoxygenation-level-dependent near-infrared spectrometry in frontal lobe of humans, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 27(5), 1082-1093 (2007).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Hoshi, N. Kobayashi and M. Tamura, Interpretation of near-infrared spectroscopy signals: a study with a newly developed perfused rat brain model, J. Appl. Physiol. 90(5), 1657-62 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Greisen, Is near-infrared spectroscopy living up to its promises?, Semin. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 11(6), 498-502 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl and A. Villringer, Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation, J. Appl. Physiol. 81(3), 1174-1183 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Mottola, S. Crisostomi, M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, Relationship between handgrip sustained submaximal exercise and prefrontal cortex oxygenation, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 578, 305-309 (2006).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Rupp
    • 1
  • Stéphane Perrey
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sport Sciences Motor Efficiency&Deficiency LaboratoryAvenue du Pic Saint LoupFrance

Personalised recommendations