Advertisement

Wolf–Human Conflicts and Management in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan

  • David B. RuidEmail author
  • William J. Paul
  • Brian J. Roell
  • Adrian P. WydevenEmail author
  • Robert C. Willging
  • Randy L. Jurewicz
  • Donald H. Lonsway
Chapter

18.1 Introduction

Recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in the Great Lakes region has been accompanied by an increase in wolf–human conflicts. The interface between owners of domestic animals and wolf recovery presents unique challenges for wildlife management. Investigating wolf complaints, explaining wolf ecology, conservation goals, and litigation that has impacted wolf management to people who have had domestic animals killed by wolves are challenges faced by those involved with managing wolf–human conflicts. In this chapter, we describe wolf–human conflicts and management, focusing on the period 1974–2006, when wolves were protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA).

The patterns of European settlement and wolf persecution were similar in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Minnesota maintained a bounty system for wolves from 1849 to 1965, aerial hunting of wolves persisted until 1956, from 1965 to 1973 wolves could be harvested for fur, and depredation control...

Keywords

Great Lake Region Wolf Population Wolf Management Livestock Depredation Wolf Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andelt, W. F. 1987. Coyote predation. In Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America, eds. M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, pp. 128–140. North Bay, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Trappers Association.Google Scholar
  2. Arthur, L. M. 1981. Coyote control: the public response. Journal of Range Management 34:14–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ballard, W. B., Carbyn, L. N., and Smith, D. W. 2003. Wolf interactions with non-prey. In Wolves behavior, ecology, and conservation, eds. L. Boitani and L. D. Mech, pp. 289–316. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berg, W. E., and Benson, S. 1999. Updated wolf population estimate for Minnesota, 1997–1998. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Report. Grand Rapids, MN.Google Scholar
  5. Berg, W. E., and Kuehn, D. W. 1982. Ecology of wolves in north-central Minnesota. In Wolves of the world: perspectives of behavior, ecology and conservation, eds. F. H. Harrington and P. C. Paquet, pp. 4–11. Park Ridge, IL: Noyes Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Beyer, D., Hogrefe, T., Peyton, R. B., Bull, P., Burroughs, J. P., and Lederle, P. 2006. Review of social and biological science relevant to wolf management in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  7. Bjorge, R. R., and Gunson, J. R. 1981. Wolf predation of cattle on the Simonette River pastures in northwestern Alberta. In Wolves in Canada and Alaska: their status, biology, and management, ed. L. N. Carbyn, pp. 106–111. Ottawa, Canada: Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, E. H., and Pletscher, D. H. 2005. Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1256–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bromley, C., and Gese, E. M. 2001. Effect of sterilization on territory fidelity and maintenance, pair bonds, and survival rates of free-ranging coyotes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:386–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cluff, H. D., and Murray, D. L. 1995. Review of wolf control methods in North America. In Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, eds. L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts, and D. R. Seip, pp. 491–504. Edmonton, AB, Canada: Circumpolar Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Erb, J., and Benson, S. 2004. Distribution and abundance of wolves in Minnesota, 2003–2004. Grand Rapids, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  12. Fritts, S. H., and Mech, L. D. 1981. Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly-protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 80:1–79.Google Scholar
  13. Fritts, S. H. 1982. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota. Resource Publication 145. Washington, DC: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  14. Fritts, S. H., Paul, W. J., and Mech, L. D. 1984. Movements of translocated wolves in Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:709–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fritts, S. H., Paul, W. J., and Mech, L. D. 1985. Can relocated wolves survive? Wildlife Society Bulletin 13:459–463.Google Scholar
  16. Fritts, S. H., and Paul, W. J. 1989. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:121–123.Google Scholar
  17. Fritts, S. H., Paul, W. J., Mech, L. D., and Scott, D. P. 1992. Trends and management of wolf-livestock conflicts in Minnesota. Resource Publication 181. Washington, DC: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  18. Fritts, S. H., Stephenson, R. O., Hayes, R. D., and Boitani, L. 2003. Wolves and humans. In Wolves behavior, ecology, and conservation, eds. L. Boitani and L. D. Mech, pp. 289–316. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fuller, T. K., Berg, W. E., Radde, G. L., Lenarz, M. S., and Joselyn, G. B. 1992. A history and current estimate of wolf distribution and numbers in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:42–55.Google Scholar
  20. Gehring, T. M., and Potter, B. A. 2005. Wolf habitat analysis in Michigan: an example of the need for proactive land management for carnivore species. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1237–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harper, E. K., Paul, W. J., and Mech, L. D. 2005. Causes of wolf depredation increase in Minnesota from 1979–1998. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33: 888–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harper, E. K., Paul, W. J., and Mech, L. D. 2008. Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:778–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hawley, J. A. 2005. Experimental assessment of shock collars as a non-lethal control method for free-ranging wolves in Wisconsin. MS Thesis. Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI.Google Scholar
  24. Howery, L. D., and DeLiberto, T. J. 2004. Indirect effects of carnivores on livestock foraging behavior and production. Sheep and Goat Research Journal 19:64–71.Google Scholar
  25. Lehmkuhler, J., Palmquist, G., Ruid, D., Willging, R., and Wydeven, A. P. 2007. Effects of wolves and other predators on farms in Wisconsin: beyond verified losses. Publication ER-658–2007. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  26. Mladenoff, D. J., Sickley, T. A., Haight, R. G., and Wydeven, A. P. 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the Northern Great Lakes region. Conservation Biology 9:279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mech, L. D. 1970. The wolf. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  28. Mech, L. D., Fritts, S. H., and Paul, W. J. 1988. Relationship between winter severity and wolf depredations on domestic animals in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16:269–272.Google Scholar
  29. Mech, L. D., Fritts, S. H., and Nelson, M. E. 1996. Wolf management in the 21st century, from public input to sterilization. Journal of Wildlife Research 1:195–198.Google Scholar
  30. Mech, L. D., Harper, E. K., Meier, T. J., and Paul, W. J. 2000. Assessing factors that may predispose Minnesota farms to wolf depredations on cattle. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:623–629.Google Scholar
  31. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 1997. Michigan gray wolf recovery and management plan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  32. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2001. Minnesota wolf management plan. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  33. Musiani, M, and Visalberghi, E. 2001. Effectiveness of fladry on wolves in captivity. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:91–98.Google Scholar
  34. Musiani, M., Muhly, T., Cormack-Gates, C., Callaghan, C., Smith, M. E., and Tosoni, E. 2005. Seasonality and reoccurrence of depredation and wolf control in western North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:876–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2002. Census of agriculture-county data. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  36. Oakleaf, J. K., Mack, C., and Murray, D. L. 2003. Effects of wolves on livestock calf survival and movements in Central Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 67:299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peek, J. M., Brown, D. E., Kellert, S. R., Mech, L. D., Shaw, J. H., and Van Ballenberghe, V. 1991. Restoration of wolves in North America. Technical Review 91. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society.Google Scholar
  38. Shivik, J. A., Treves, A., and Callahan, P. 2003. Non-lethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17:1531–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shivik, J. A. 2004. Non-lethal alternatives for predation management. Sheep and Goat Research Journal 19:64–71.Google Scholar
  40. Shivik, J. A. 2006. Tools for the edge: what's new for conserving carnivores. Bioscience 56:253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schultz, R. N., Jonas, K. W., Skuldt, L. H., and Wydeven, A. P. 2005. Experimental use of dog-training shock collars to deter depredations by gray wolves. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:142–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shelton, M. 2004. Predation and livestock production perspective and overview. Sheep and Goat Research Journal 14:2–5.Google Scholar
  43. Spence, C. E., Kenyon, J. E., Smith, D. R., Hayes, R. D., and Baer, A. M. 1999. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves. Canadian Veterinarian Journal 40:118–121.Google Scholar
  44. Treves, A., Jurewitz, R. R., Naughton, L., Rose, R. A., Willging, R. C., and Wydeven, A. P. 2002. Wolf depredation on domestic animals: control and compensation in Wisconsin, 1976–2000. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:231–241.Google Scholar
  45. Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L., Harper, E. K., Mladenoff, D. J., Rose, R. A., Sickley, T. A., and Wydeven, A. P. 2004. Predicting human-carnivore conflict: a spatial model based on 25 years of wolf depredation on livestock. Conservation Biology 18:114–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1978a. Recovery plan for the eastern timber wolf. Washington, DC: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  47. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1978b. Wildlife and Fisheries: reclassification of the gray wolf in the United States and Mexico, with determination of critical habitat in Michigan and Minnesota. Federal Register 43:9607–9615.Google Scholar
  48. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1978c. Predator damage in the west: a study of coyote management alternatives. Washington, DC: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  49. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: regulation governing the gray wolf in Minnesota. Federal Register 50:36256–36266.Google Scholar
  50. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: regulations governing the gray wolf in Minnesota. Federal Register 50:50792–50793.Google Scholar
  51. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Recovery plan for the eastern timber wolf. Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  52. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: final rule designating the Western Great Lakes populations of gray wolves as a distinct population segment: removing the Western Great Lakes distinct population segment of the gray wolf from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 72:6051–6103.Google Scholar
  53. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1999. Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources PUBL-ER-099 99. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  54. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2006. Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan, Addendum. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  55. Wydeven, A. P., Treves, A., Brost, B., and Wiedenhoeft, J. E. 2004. Characteristics of wolf packs in Wisconsin: identification of traits influencing depredation. In Predators and people: from conflict to coexistence, eds. N. Fascione, A. Delach, and M. E. Smith, pp. 28–50. Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  56. Wydeven, A. P., Willging, R. C., Ruid, D. B., and Jurewicz, R. L. 2006. Wolf depredations in Wisconsin through 2005, Appendix A-2. In Wisconsin Wolf Management Plan, Addendum 2006. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  57. Young, S. P., and Goldman, E. A. 1944. The wolves of North America. Parts 1 and 2. New York: Dover Publication Incorporated.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Ruid
    • 1
    Email author
  • William J. Paul
    • 2
  • Brian J. Roell
    • 3
  • Adrian P. Wydeven
    • 4
    Email author
  • Robert C. Willging
    • 1
  • Randy L. Jurewicz
    • 5
  • Donald H. Lonsway
    • 6
  1. 1.USDA/APHIS/Wildlife ServicesRhinelanderUSA
  2. 2.USDA/APHIS/Wildlife ServicesGrand RapidsUSA
  3. 3.Michigan Department of Natural ResourcesSouth MarquetteUSA
  4. 4.Wisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesPark FallsUSA
  5. 5.Wisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesMadisonUSA
  6. 6.USDA/APHIS/Wildlife ServicesIronwoodUSA

Personalised recommendations