Peritoneal Dialysis in Children

Like many chapters in this book, the origins of the present chapter can be traced to the 1976 discovery of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) by Moncrief, and their associates [1]. Early on, PD was widely considered to be the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for acute renal failure in pediatric patients, primarily because PD is intrinsically simple, safe, and easily adapted for use in patients of all ages and sizes. However, following on the heels of the seminal work of Moncrief and Popovich, it became apparent that CAPD was a method of chronic RRT that was ideally suited to the needs of the pediatric patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well.

References

  1. 1.
    Popovich R, Moncrief J, Dechered J, et al. The definition of a novel wearable/portable equilibrium dialysis technique. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1976; 5: 64.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blackfan K, Maxcy K. The intraperitoneal injection of saline solution. Am J Dis Child 1918; 15: 19–28.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bloxsum A, Powell N. The treatment of acute temporary dysfunction of the kidneys by peritoneal irrigation. Pediatrics 1948; 1: 52–57.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Swan H, Gordon H. Peritoneal lavage in the treatment of anuria in children. Pediatrics 1949; 4: 586–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Odel H, Ferris D, Power M. Peritoneal lavage as an effective means of extra-renal excretion. Am J Med 1950; 9: 63–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maxwell M, Rockney R, Kleeman C. Peritoneal dialysis: 1. Technique and applications. J Am Med Assoc 1959; 170: 917–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Segar W, Gibson R, Rhamy R. Peritoneal dialysis in infants and small children. Pediatrics 1961; 27: 602–613.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ettledorf N, Dobbins W, Sweeney M, Smith J, Whittington G, Sheffield J, et al. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis in the management of acute renal failure in children. J Pediatr 1962; 60: 327–339.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Segar W. Peritoneal dialysis in the treatment of boric acid poisoning. N Engl J Med 1960; 262: 798–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ettledorf N, Dobbins W, Summitt R, Rainwater W, Fischer R. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis using 5 per cent albumin in the treatment of salicylate intoxication in children. J Pediatr 1961; 58: 226–236.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lloyd-Still J, Atwell J. Renal failure in infancy, with special reference to the use of peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr Surg 1966; 1: 466–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Manley G, Collip P. Renal failure in the newborn: treatment with peritoneal dialysis. Am J Dis Child 1968; 115: 107–110.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lugo G, Ceballos R, Brown W, Polhill R, Cassady G. Acute renal failure in the neonate managed by peritoneal dialysis. Am J Dis Child 1969; 118: 655–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gianantonio C, Vitacco M, Mendelbarzee J, Mendilaharzu F, Rutty A. Acute renal failure in infancy and childhood. Clinical course and treatment of 41 patients. J Pediatr 1962; 61: 660–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wiggelinkhuizen J. Peritoneal dialysis in children. S Afr Med J 1971; 45: 1047–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Day R, White R. Peritoneal dialysis in children: review of 8 years' experience. Arch Dis Child 1977; 52: 56–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chan J. Peritoneal dialysis for renal failure in childhood. Clin Pediatr 1978; 17: 349–354.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Feldman W, Baliah T, Drummond K. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis in the management of chronic renal failure in children. Am J Dis Child 1968; 116: 30–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palmer R, Quinton W, Gray J. Prolonged peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure. Lancet 1964; 1: 700–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Palmer R, Newell J, Gray J, Quinton W. Treatment of chronic renal failure by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. N Engl J Med 1966; 274 (5): 248–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tenckhoff H, Schechter H. A bacteriologically safe peritoneal access device. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1966; 14: 181–186.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boen S, Mion C, Curtis F, Shilipetar G. Periodic peritoneal dialysis using the repeated puncture technique and an automated cycling machine. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1964; 10: 409–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tenckhoff H, Meston B, Shilipetar G. A simplified automatic peritoneal dialysis system. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1972; 18: 436–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Counts S, Hickman R, Garbaccio A, Tenckhoff H. Chronic home peritoneal dialysis in children. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1973; 19: 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hickman R. Nine years experience with chronic peritoneal dialysis in childhood. Dial Transplant 1978; 7: 803.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brouhard B, Berger M, Cunningham R, Petrusick T, Allen W, Lynch R, et al. Home peritoneal dialysis in children. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1979; 25: 90–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baluarte H, Grossman M, Polinsky M, et al. Experience with intermittent home peritoneal dialysis (IHPD) in children. Pediatr Res 1980; 14: 994.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lorentz W, Hamilton R, Disher B, Crater C. Home peritoneal dialysis during infancy. Clin Nephrol 1981; 15 (4): 194–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Potter D, McDaid T, Ramirez J, et al. Peritoneal dialysis in children. In: Atkins R, Thomson N, Farrell P, editors. Peritoneal Dialysis. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981: 356–361.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Potter D, McDaid T, McHenry K, Mar H. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in children. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1981; 27: 64–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oreopoulos D, Katirtzoglou A, Arbus G, Cordy P. Dialysis and transplantation in young children. Br Med J 1979; 16(1): 1628–1629.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Balfe J, Irwin M. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children. In: Legrain M, editor. Continuous Ambulatroy Peritoneal Dialysis. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1980: 131–136.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alexander S, Tseng C, Maksym K, et al. Clinical parameters in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for infants and young children. In: Moncrief J, Popovich R, editors. CAPD. New York: Masson, 1981: 195–209.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kohaut E. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a preliminary pediatric experience. Am J Dis Child 1981; 135: 270–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guillot M, Clermont J, Gagnadoux M, Broyer M. Nineteen months experience with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children: main clinical and biological results. In: Gahl G, Kessel M, Nolph K, editors. Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1981: 203–207.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Balfe J, Vigneux A, Willumsen J, et al. The use of CAPD in the treatment of children with end-stage renal disease. Perit Dial Bull 1981; 1:35–38.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salusky I, Lucullo L, Nelson P, Fine R. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1982; 29 (4): 1005–1012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eastham E, Kirplani H, Francis D, Gokal R, Jackson R. Pediatric continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Arch Dis Child 1982; 57 (9): 677–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alexander S. Pediatric CAPD update – 1983. Perit Dial Bull 1983; 3: S15–S22.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Price C, Suki W. Newer modifications of peritoneal dialysis: options in the treatment of patients with renal failure. Am J Nephrol 1980; 1: 97–104.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alexander S, Honda M. Continuous peritoneal diaysis for children: a decade of worldwide growth and development. Kidney Int 1993; 43(Suppl 40): S65–S74.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fine R, Ho M. The role of APD in the management of pediatric patients: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Semin Dial 2002; 15 (6): 427–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    van der Heijden B, van Dijk P, Verrier-Jones K, Jager K, Briggs J. Renal replacement therapy in children: data from 12 registries in Europe. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 213–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Verrina E, Edefonti A, Gianoglio B, Rinaldi S, Sorino P, Zacchello G, et al. A multicenter experience on patient and technique survival in children on chronic dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 82–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bakkaloglu S, Ekim M, Sever L, Noyan A, Aksu N, Akman S, et al. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in Turkish children: a multicenter study. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20: 644–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grunberg J, Verocay M, Rebori A, Ramela V, Amaral C, Hekimian G, et al. Twenty years' pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis in Uruguay: patient and technique survival. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 50: 1315–1319.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    U.S. Renal Data System, USRDS 2006 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 18: 2006. Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoffman J. Congenital heart disease. Pediatr Clin North Am 1990; 37: 25–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Poplack D. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In: Pizzo P, Poplack D, editors. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. New York: Lippincott, 1989: 323.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gusmano R, Perfumo F. Worldwide demographic aspects of chronic renal failure in children. Kidney Int 1993; 43 (suppl. 41): S31–S35.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    De Vecchi A, Dratwa M, Wiedmann M. Healthcare systems and end-stage renal disease: an international review-costs and reimbursement of ESRD therapies. N Engl J Med 1999; 14: 31–41.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moosa M, Kidd M. The dangers of rationing dialysis treatment: the dilemma facing a developing country. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 1107–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS) 2006 Annual Report. 2007.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rippe B, Stelin G. Stimulations of peritoneal transport during CAPD. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 1234–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gruskin A, Cote M, Baluarte H. Peritoneal diffusion curves, peritoneal clearances, and scaling factors in children of differing ages. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 1982; 3 (4): 271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kohaut E, Waldo F, Benfield M. The effect of changes in dialysate volume on glucose and urea equilibration. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 236–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schröder C, van Dreumel J, Reddingius R. Peritoneal transport kinetics of glucose, urea, and creatinine during infancy and childhood. Perit Dial Int 1991; 12: 322–325.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Geary D, Harvey E, MacMillan J, Goodman Y, Scott M, Balfe J. The peritoneal equilibration test in children. Kidney Int 1992; 42 (1): 102–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ellis E, Watts K, Wells T, Arnold W. Use of the peritoneal equilibration test in pediatric dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 259–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Edefonti A, Picca M, Galato R, Guez S, Giani M, Ghio L, et al. Evaluation of the peritoneal equilibration test in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl. 2): S260–S262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mendley S, Umans J, Majkowski N. Measurement of peritoneal dialysis delivery in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1993; 7: 284–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanna J, Foreman J, Gehr T, Chan J, Wolfrum J, Ruddley J. The peritoneal equilibration test in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1993; 7 (6): 731–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vonesh E, Lysaght M, Moran J, Farrell P. Kinetic modeling as a prescription aid in peritoneal dialysis. Blood Purif 1991; 9 (5–6): 246–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Morgenstern B. Structure and function of the pediatric peritoneal membrane. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Norwell: Kluwer, 1998: 73–85.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Morgenstern B, Pyle W, Gurskin A, et al. Transport characteristics of the pediatric peritoneal membrane. Kidney Int 1984; 25: 259–264.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Geary D, Harvey E, Balfe J. Mass transfer area coefficients in children. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Warady B, Alexander S, Hossli S, Vonesh E, Geary D, Watkins S, et al. Peritoneal membrane transport function in children receiving long-term dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 2385–2391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Morgenstern B. Equilibration testing: close but not quite right. Pediatr Nephrol 1993; 7: 290–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schaefer F, Langenbeck D, Heckert K, Scharer K, Mehls O. Evaluation of peritoneal solute transfer by the peritoneal equilibration test in children. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 410–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sliman G, Klee K, Gall-Holden B, Watkins S. Peritoneal equilibration test curves and adequacy of dialysis in children on automated peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 24 (5): 813–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    de Boer A, van Schaijk T, Willems H, Reddingius R, Monnens L, Schroder C. The necessity of adjusting dialysate volume to body surface area in pediatric peritoneal equilibration tests. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17 (2): 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schaefer F, Haraldsson B, Haas S, Simkova E, Feber J, Mehls O. Estimation of peritoneal mass transport by three-pore model in children. Kidney Int 1998; 54 (4): 1372–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rippe B, Stelin G, Haraldsson B. Computer simulations of peritoneal fluid transport in CAPD. Kidney Int 1991; 40: 315–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rippe B. A three-pore model of peritoneal transport. Perit Dial Int 1991; 13 (suppl. 2): S35–S38.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pyle W. Mass Transfer in Peritoneal Dialysis. University of Texas, 1981.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kohaut E, Alexander S. Ultrafiltration in the young patient on CAPD. In: Moncrief J, Popovich R, editors. CAPD Update. New York: Masson, 1981: 221–226.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Balfe J, Hanning R, Vigneux A. A comparison of peritoneal water and solute movement in younger and older children on CAPD. In: Fine R, Schaefer F, Mehls O, editors. CAPD in Children. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985: 14–19.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schaefer F, Fischbach M, Heckert K. Hydrostatic intraperitoneal pressure in children on peritoneal dialysis (abstract). Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 2): S79.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mactier R, Khanna R, Moore H, Russ J, Nolph K, Groshong T. Kinetics of peritoneal dialysis in children: role of lymphatics. Kidney Int 1988; 34 (1): 82–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schröder C, Reddingius R, van Dreumel J, Theuuwes A, Monnens L. Transcapillary ultrafiltration and lymphatic absorption during childhood continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Nephrol Dial Transplant 1991; 6 (8): 571–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rippe B. Is lymphatic absorption important for ultrafiltration? Perit Dial Int 1995; 15: 203–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Warady B, Bunchman T. Dialysis therapy for children with acute renal failure: Survey results. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 15: 11–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goldstein S. Overview of pediatric renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure. Artif Organs 2003; 27: 781–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goldstein S, Somers M, Baum M, Symons J, Brophy P, Blowey D, et al. Pediatric patients with multi-organ system dysfunction syndrome receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 653–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Flynn J, Kershaw D, Smoyer W, Brophy P, McBryde K, Bunchman T. Peritoneal dialysis for management of pediatric acute renal failure. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21: 390–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Golej J, Kitzmueller E, Hermon M, Boigner H, Burda G, Trittenwein G. Low-volume peritoneal dialysis in 116 neonatal and pediatric critical care patients. Eur J Pediatr 2002; 161: 385–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morelli S, Ricci Z, Di Chiara L, Stazi G, Polito A, Vitale V, et al. Renal replacement therapy in neonates with congenital heart disease. Contrib Nephrol 2007; 156: 428–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sorof J, Stromberg D, Brewer E, Feltes T, Fraser C. Early initiation of peritoneal dialysis after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Pediatr Nephrol 1999; 13: 641–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Biogner H, Brannath W, Hermon M, Stoll E, Burda G, Trittwein G, et al. Predictors of mortality at initiation of peritoneal dialysis in children after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2004; 77: 61–65.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dittrich S, Dahnert I, Vogel M, Stiller B, Haas N, Alexi-Maskishvili V, et al. Peritoneal dialysis after infant open heart surgery: observations in 27 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 68: 160–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Weng K, Hsieh K, Huang S, Lin C, Pan J. Peritoneal dialysis in treatment of postoperative heart failure after cardiac surgery in infants. Acta Pediatr Taiwan 2004; 45: 81–84.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Alkan T, Akcevin A, Turkoglu H, Parker T, Sasmazel A, Bayer V, et al. Postoperative prophylactic peritoneal dialysis in neonates and infants after complex congenital cardiac surgery. ASAIO J 2006; 52: 693–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bunchman T, McBryde K, Mottes T, Gardner J, Maxvold N, Brophy P. Pediatric acute renal failure: outcome by modality and disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2001; 16: 1067–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Strazdins V, Watson A, Harvey B, European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failurein children: European guidelines. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Murphy J, Reznik V, Mendoza S, Peterson B, Rodarte A, Griswold W. Use of a guide wire inserted catheter for acute peritoneal dialysis. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 8 (4): 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Auron A, Warady B, Simon S, Blowey D, Srivastava T, Musharaf G, et al. Use of the multipurpose drainage catheter for the provision of acute peritoneal dialysis in infants and children. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 49: 650–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kohli H, Bhalla D, Sud K, Jha V, Gupta K, Sakhuja V. Acute peritoneal dialysis in neonates: comparison of two types of peritoneal access. Pediatr Nephrol 1999; 13: 241–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vande Walle J, Raes A, Castillo D, Lutz-Dettinger N, Dejaegher A. New perspectives for PD in acute renal failure related to new catheter techniques and introduction of APD. Adv Perit Dial 1997; 13: 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lewis M, Nycyk J. Practical peritoneal dialysis – the Tenckhoff catheter in acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1992; 5: 715–717.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Leumann E, Knecht B, Dangel P. Peritoneal dialysis in newborns: technical improvements. In: Bulla M, editor. Renal Insufficiency in Children. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982: 147–150.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Borzotta A, Harrison H, Groff D. Technique of peritoneal dialysis cannulation in neonates. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1983; 157: 73–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Huber R, Fuchshuber A, Huber P. Acute peritoneal dialysis in preterm newborns and small infants: Surgical management. J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29: 400–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chadha V, Warady B, Blowey D, Simckes A, Alon U. Tenckhoff catheters prove superior to Cook catheters in pediatric acute peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35: 1111–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sojo E, Bisigniano L, Grossman M, et al. Ten years experience with CAPD catheters. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 263–279.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nash M, Russo J. Neonatal iactic acidosis and renal failure: the role of peritoneal dialysis. Pediatrics 1977; 91: 101–105.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Vande Walle J, Raes A, Castillo D, Lutz-Dettinger N, Dejaegher A. Advantages of HCO3 solution with low sodium concentration over standard lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1997; 13: 179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Vande Walle J, Raes A, De Hoorne J, Mauel R. Need for low sodium concentration and frequent cycles of 3.86% glucose solution in children treated with acute peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 2005; 21: 204–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moritz M, del Rio M, Crooke G, Singer L. Acute peritoneal dialysis as both cause and treatment of hypernatremia in an infant. Pediatr Nephrol 2001; 16: 697–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vande Walle J, Raes A, De Hoorne J, Mauel R, Dejaegher A, Matthys D. Combined amino-acid and glucose peritoneal dialysis solution for children with acute renal failure. Adv Perit Dial 2004; 20: 226–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lorentz W. Acute hydrothorax during peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 1979; 94: 417–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Groshong T. Dialysis in infants and children. In: Van Stone J, editor. Dialysis in the treatment of renal insufficiency. New York: Grune & Stratten, 1983: 234–236.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Posen G, Luisello J. Continuous equilibration peritoneal dialysis in treatment of acute renal failure. Perit Dial Bull 1980; 1: 6–7.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Abbad F, Ploos van Amstel S. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in small children with acute renal failure. Proc EDTA 1982; 19: 607–613.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    McNiece K, Ellis E, Drummond-Webb J, Fontenot E, O'Grady C, Blaszak R. Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis in children following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20: 972–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for 2006 Updates: Hemodialysis Adequacy, Peritoneal Dialysis Adequacy and Vascular Access. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 48 (suppl. 1): S1–S322.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    van Olden R, Krediet R, Struijk D, Arisz L. Measurement of residual renal function in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 745–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Schwartz G, Haycock G, Edelmann C, Jr., Spitzer A. A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in children derived from body length and plasma creatinine. Pediatrics 1976; 58: 259–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hellerstein S, Berenbom M, Alon U, Warady B. Creatinine clearance following cimetidine for estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Pediatr Nephrol 1998; 12: 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Alexander S, Salusky I, Warady B, Watkins S. Peritoneal dialysis workshop: pediatrics recommendations. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17(Suppl 3):S25–S27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Salusky I, Holloway M. Selection of peritoneal dialysis for pediatric patients. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17 (suppl. 3): S35–S37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Warady B, Schaefer F, Alexander S, Firanek C, Mujais S. Care of the Pediatric Patient on peritoneal dialysis. McGaw Park, IL: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, 2004.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Crompton C, Balfe J, Khoury A. Peritoneal dialysis in the prune belly sundrome. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wisanuyotin S, Dell K, Vogt B, O'Riordan M, Avner E, Davis I. Complications of peritoneal dialysis in children with Eagle-Barrett syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Warady B, Hellerstein S, Alon U. Advisability of initiating chronic peritoneal dialysis in the presence of a ventribuloperitoneal shunt. Pediatr Nephrol 1990; 4:96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Grünberg J, Verocay M, Rébori A, Pouso J. Comparison of chronic peritoneal dialysis outcomes in children with and without spina bifida. 2007; 22 (4): 573–577.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Grunberg J, Rebori A, Verocay M. Peritoneal dialysis in children with spina bifida and ventriculoperitoneal shunt: one center's experience and review of the literature. 2003; 23: 481–486.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Dunne S, Lewis S, Bonner P, Meize-Grochowski R. Quality of life for spouses of CAPD patients. ANNA J 1994; 21 (5): 237–246.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Reynolds J, Postlethwaite R. Psychosocial burdens of dialysis treatment modalities: do they differ and does it matter? Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: S548–S550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    McKenna A, Keating L, Vigneux A, Stevens S, Williams A, Geary D. Quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease – patient and caregiver assessments. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 1899–1905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Goldstein S, Graham N, Burwinkle T, Warady B, Farrah R, Varni J. Health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with ESRD. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21: 846–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tsai T, Liu S, Tsai J, Chou L. Psychosocial effects on caregivers for children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 1983–1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Feber J, Scharer K, Schaefer F, Mikova M, Janda J. Residual renal function in children on haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 579–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Menouer S, Soulami K, Dangelser C, Helmstetter A, et al. Effects of automated peritoneal dialysis on residual daily urinary volume in children. Adv Perit Dial 2001; 17: 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Twardowski Z, Nolph K, Khanna R, et al. Peritoneal equilibration test. Perit Dial Bull 1986; 7: 138–147.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Warady B, Andrews W. Peritoneal dialysis access. In: Geary D, Schaefer F, editors. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Inc., 2008; 823–834.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tenckhoff H, Schechter H. A bacteriologically safe peritoneal access device. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1968; 14: 181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Nielsen P, Hemmingsen C, Friis S, et al. Comparison of straight and curled Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheters implanted by percutaneous technique: a prospective randomized study. Perit Dial Int 1995; 15: 18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Strippoli G, Tong A, Johnson D, Schena F, Craig J. Catheter type, placement and insertion techniques for preventing peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Strippoli G, Tong A, Johnson D, Schena F, Craig J. Catheter type, placement and insertion techniques for preventing peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 2.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Neu A, Kohaut E, Warady B. Current approach to peritoneal access in North American children: a report of the Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Consortium. Adv Perit Dial 1995; 11: 289–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Twardowski Z, Nolph K, Khanna R, et al. The need for a 'swan neck' permanently bent, arcuate peritoneal dialysis catheter. Perit Dial Bull 1985; 4: 219–223.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lindblad A, Hamilton R, Nolph K, et al. A retrospective analysis of catheter configuration and cuff type: a national CAPD registry report. Perit Dial Int 1988; 8: 129–133.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lee H, Park M, Cha M, et al. The peritoneal access. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S322–S326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rinaldi S, Sera F, Verrina E, Edefonti A, Gianoglio B, Perfumo F, et al. Chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters in children: a fifteen-year experience of the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2004; 24: 481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Flanigan M, Gokal R. Peritoneal catheters and exit-site practices toward optimum peritoneal access: a review of current developments. Perit Dial Int 2005; 25: 132–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Macchini F, Valade A, Ardissino G, Testa S, Edefonti A, Torricelli M, et al. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in children: catheter related complications. A single centre experience. Pediatric Surg Int 2006; 22: 524–528.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Aksu N, Yavascan O, Anil M, Kara O, Erdogan H, Bal A. A ten-year single-centre experience in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis – significance of percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22 (7): 2045–2051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Diaz-Buxo J, Gessinger W. Single-cuff versus double-cuff Tenckhoff catheter. Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4: S100–S102.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kim D, Burke D, Izatt S, et al. Single- or double-cuff peritoneal catheters? A prospective comparison. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1984; 30: 232–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mitwalli A, Kim D, Wu G, et al. Single vs. double-cuff peritoneal catheters: A prospective controlled trial. Adv Perit Dial 1985; 1: 35–40.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Eklund B, Honkanen E, Kyllönen L, Salmela K, Kala A. Peritoneal dialysis access: prospective randomized comparison of single-cuff and double-cuff straight Tenckhoff catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12 (12): 2664–2666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Twardowski Z, Nolph K, Khanna R. Computer interaction: catheters. Adv Perit Dial 1994; 10: 11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vigneux A, Hardy B, Balfe J. Chronic peritoneal catheter in children – one or two dacron cuffs? Perit Dial Bull 1981; 1: 151.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Alexander S, Tank E. Surgical aspects of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in infants, children and adolescents. J Urol 1982; 127: 501–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Watson A, Vigneux A, Hardy B, et al. Six-year experience with CAPD catheters in children. Perit Dial Bull 1985; 5: 119–122.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Watson A, Vigneux A, Balfe J, et al. Chronic peritoneal catheters in a pediatric population. Adv Perit Dial 1985; 1: 41–44.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Warady B, Jackson M, Millspaugh J, et al. Prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections in children. Perit Dial Bull 1987; 7: 34–36.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Verrina E, Bassi S, Perfumo F, et al. Analysis of complications in a chronic peritoneal dialysis pediatric patient population. Perit Dial Int 1992; 13 (suppl. 3): S257–S259.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Warady B, Hebert D, Sullivan E, Alexander S, Tejani A. Renal transplantation, chronic dialysis, and chronic renal insufficiency in children and adolescents. The 1995 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Nephrol 1997; 11: 49–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gokal R, Alexander S, Ash S, Chen T, Danielson A, Holmes C, et al. Peritoneal catheters and exit-site practices toward optimum peritoneal access: 1998 update. (Official report from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis). Perit Dial Int 1998; 18 (1): 11–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Stone M, Fonkalsrud E, Salusky I, Takiff H, Hall T, Fine R. Surgical management of peritoneal dialysis catheters in children: five-year experience with 1,800 patient-month follow-up. J Pediatr Surg 1986; 21 (12): 1177–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Eklund B, Honkanen E, Kala A, et al. Catheter configuration and outcome in patients on continuous ambulatoryperitoneal dialysis: a prospective comparison of two catheters. Perit Dial Int 1994; 14: 70–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Crabtree J, Burchette R. Prospective comparison of downward and lateral peritoneal dialysis catheter tunnel-tract and exit-site directions. Perit Dial Int 2006; 26: 677–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Twardowski Z, Prowant B, Nichols W, Nolph K, Khanna R. Six-year experience with swan neck catheters. Perit Dial Int 1992; 12 (4): 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Furth S, Donaldson L, Sullivan E, Watkins S. Peritoneal dialysis catheter infections and peritonitis in children: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 16 (3): 179–182.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Twardowski Z, Nichols W, Nolph K, et al. Swan neck presternal ('bath tub') catheter for peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 316–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sieniawska M, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Warchol S. Swan neck presternal catheter for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children. 1993; 7: 557–558.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sieniawska M, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Warchol S. Preliminary results with the swan neck presternal catheter for CAPD in children. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 321–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Chadha V, Jones L, Ramirez Z, Warady B. Chest wall peritoneal dialysis catheter placement in infants with a colostomy. Adv Perit Dial 2000; 16: 318–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Warchol S, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Sieniawska M. Swan neck presternal peritoneal dialysis catheter: five-year experience in children. 1998; 18: 183–187.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Warchol S, Ziolkowska H, Roszkowska-Blaim M. Exit-site infection in children on peritoneal dialysis: comparison of two types of peritoneal catheters. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23: 169–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kimberly K, Washburn K, Currier H, Salter K, Brandt M. Surgical technique for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement in the pediatric patient: a North American survey. Adv Perit Dial 2004; 20: 218–221.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Wang J, Chen F, Huang T, et al. Laparoscopic assisted placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters for selected patiens with previous abdominal operation. J Invest Surg 2005; 18: 59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Daschner M, Gfrorer S, Zachariou Z, et al. Laparoscopic tenckhoff cathter implantation in children. Perit Dial Int 2002; 22: 22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cruz C. Implantation techniques for peritoneal dialysis catheters. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S319–S321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lewis S, Prowant B, Douglas C, et al. Nursing practice related to peritoneal catheter exit site care and infections. ANNA J 1996; 23: 609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Helfrich G, Pechan B, Alijani M, et al. Reduction of catheter complications with lateral placement. Perit Dial Bull 1983; 3 (suppl. 4): S2–S4.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Stegmayr B, Hedberg B, Sandzen B, et al. Absence of leakage by insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheter through the rectus muscle. Perit Dial Int 1990; 10: 53–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Khanna R, Nolph K, Oreopoulos D. Peritoneal Access: The Essentials of Peritoneal Dialysis. Boston: Kluwer, 1993.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stegmayr B, Wikdahl A, Arnerlov C, et al. A modified lateral technique for the insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters enabling immediate start of dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 329–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sojo E, Grosman M, Monteverde M, Bailez M, Delgado N. Fibrin glue is useful in preventing early dialysate leakage in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2004; 24: 186–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Bennett-Jones D, Russell G, Barrett A. A comparison between oral ciprofloxacin and intraperitoneal vancomycin and gentamicin in the treatment of CAPD peritonitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1990; 26 (suppl. F): 73–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Lye W, Lee E, van der Straaten J. Intraperitoneal vancomycin/oral pefloxacin versus intraperitoneal vancomycin/gentamicin in the treatment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13 (suppl 2): S348–S350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wikdahl A, Engman U, Stegmayr B, Sorenssen J. One-dose cefuroxime i.v. and i.p. reduces microbial growth in PD patients after catheter insertion. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12 (1): 157–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Gadallah M, Ramdeen G, Mignone J, Patel D, Mitchell L, Tatro S. Role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative peritonitis in newly placed peritoneal dialysis catheters. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36 (5): 1014–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sardegna K, Beck A, Strife C. Evaluation of perioperative antibiotics at the time of dialysis catheter placement. Pediatr Nephrol 1998; 12: 149–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Katyal A, Mahale A, Khanna R. Antibiotic prophylaxis before peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion. Adv Perit Dial 2002; 18: 112–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Piraino B, Bailie G, Bernardini J, Boeschoten E, Gupta A, Holmes C, et al. Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2005 update. Perit Dial Int 2005; 25: 107–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Warady B, Schaefer F, Holloway M, Alexander S, Kandert M, Piraino B, et al. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 610–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lewis M, Webb N, Smith T, et al. Routine omentectomy is not required in children undergoiong chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1995; 11: 293–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Conlin M, Tank E. Minimizing surgical problems of peritoneal dialysis in children. J Urol 1992; 154:917–919.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Twardowski Z, Prowant B. Exit-site healing post catheter implantation. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16(Suppl 3): S51–S70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Khanna R, Twardowski Z. Peritoneal catheter exit site. Perit Dial Int 1988; 8: 119–123.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Harvey E, Braj B, Balfe J. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PD catheter exit-site and tunnel infections in children. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer, 1998: 349–368.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Krediet R, Zweers M, van der Wal A, et al. Neoangiogenesis in the peritoneal membrane. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20 (suppl. 2): S19–S25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Fusshoeller A, Plail M, Grabensee B, Plum J. Biocompatibility pattern of a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid in APD: a prospective, randomized study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (8): 2101–2106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Schmitt C, von Heyl D, Rieger S, Arbeiter K, Bonzel K, Fischbach M, et al. Reduced systemic advanced glycation endproducts in children receiving peritoneal dialysis with low glucose degradation product content. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22 (7): 2038–2044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    McIntyre C. Update on peritoneal dialysis solutions. Kidney Int 2007; 71: 486–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gokal R. Peritoneal dialysis solutions: nutritional aspects. 1997; 17 (suppl, 3): S69–S72.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hutchison A, Gokal R. Improved solutions for peritoneal dialysis: physiological calcium solutions, osmotic agents and buffers. Kidney Int 1992; 38:S153–S159.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Topley N. In vitro biocompatibility of bicarbonate-based peritoneal dialysis solutions. 1997; 17: 42–47.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Witowski J, Korybalska K, Ksiazek K, Wisniewska-Elnur J, Jörres A, Lage C, et al. Peritoneal dialysis with solutions low in glucose degradation products is associated with improved biocompatibility profile towards peritoneal mesothelial cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (4): 917–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Haas S, Schmitt CP, Arbeiter K, Bonzel KE, Fischbach M, John U, et al. Improved acidosis correction and recovery of mesothelial cell mass with neutral-pH bicarbonate dialysis solution among children undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14 (10): 2632–2638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Chauvé S, Laugel V, Muller A, Haraldsson B. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid composition on peritoneal area available for exchange in children. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 (4): 925–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Peers E, Gokal R. Icodextrin: overview of clinical experience. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wilkie M, Brown C. Polyglucose solutions in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17 (suppl. 2): S47–S50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    de Boer A, Schröder C, van Vliet R, Willems J, Monnens L. Clinical experience with icodextrin in children: ultrafiltration profiles and metabolism. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 15 (1–2): 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Michallat A, Dheu C, Loichot C, Danner S, Fischbach M. Long daytime exchange in children on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis: preservation of drained volume because of icodextrin use. Adv Perit Dial 2005; 21: 195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rusthoven E, van der Vlugt M, van Lingen-van Bueren L, van Schaijk T, Willems H, Monnens L, et al. Evaluation of intraperitoneal pressure and the effect of different osmotic agents on intraperitoneal pressure in children. Perit Dial Int 2005; 25: 352–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wilkie M, Plant M, Edwards L, et al. Icodextrin 7.5% dialysate solution (glucose polymer) in patients with ultrafiltration failure: extension of CAPD technique survival. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Krediet R, Ho-dac-Pannekeet M, Imholz A, et al. Icodextrin's effects on peritoneal transport. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Dart A, Feber J, Wong H, Filler G. Icodextrin re-absorption varies with age in children on automated peritoneal dialysis. 2005; 20 (5): 683–685.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Lam-Po-Tang M-L, Bending M, Kwan J. Icodextrin hypersensitivity in a CAPD patient. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 82–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Taylor G, Patel V, Spencer S, Fluck R, McIntyre C. Long-term use of 1.1% amino acid dialysis solution in hypoalbuminemic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2002; 58 6): 445–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Hutchison A, Freemont A, Boulton H, et al. Low-calcium dialysis fluid and orral calcium carbonate in CAPD. A method of controlling hyperphosphataemia whilst minimizing aluminum exposure and hypercalcaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992; 7: 1219–1225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Bro S, Brandi L, Daugaard H, et al. Calcium concentration in the CAPD dialysate: what is optimal and is there a need to individualize? Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 554–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Gayathir National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46 (suppl. 1): S1–S122.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sieniawska M, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Wojciechowska B. The influence of dialysate calcium concentration on the PTH level in children undergoing CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S567–S569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Ritz E, Passlick-Deetjen J, Zeier M, et al. Prescription of calcium concentration and PTH control. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S300–S304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Hutchison A. Serum magnesium and end-stage renal disease. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 327–329.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Navarro J, Mora C, Garcia M, et al. Hypermagnesemi in CAPD: relationship with parathyroid hormone levels. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 77–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Ronnholm K, Holmberg C. Peritoneal dialysis in infants. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21: 751–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    White C, Gowrishankar M, Feber J, Yiu V, Canadian Association of Pediatric Nephrologists (CAPN) and Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21: 1059–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2005 Annual Report, End Stage Renal Disease Clinical Performance Measures Project. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of Clinical Standards & Quality. 2005. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Verrina E, Zacchello G, Edefonti A, Sorino P, Rinaldi S, Gianoglio B, et al. A multicenter survey on automated peritoneal dialysis prescription in children. Adv Perit Dial 2001; 17: 264–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Burkart J, Schreiber M, Korbet S, et al. Solute clearance approach to adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 457–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Blake J, Burkart J, Churchill D. Recommended clinical practices for maximizing peritoneal dialysis clearances. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 448–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Rocco M. Body surface area limitations in achieving adequate therapy in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 617–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Becmeur F, et al. Relationship between intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure and dialysate volume in children on PD. Adv Perit Dial 1996; 12: 330–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Laugel V, Escande B, Dangelser C, Helmstetter A. Measurement of hydrostatic intraperitoneal pressure: a useful tool for the improvement of dialysis dose prescription. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 976–980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Fischbach M, Terzic J, Provot E, Weiss L, Bergere V, Menouer S, et al. Intraperitoneal pressure in children: fill-volume related and impacted by body mass index. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23: 391–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Ferber J, Schärer K, Schaefer F, et al. Residual renal function in children on haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis therapy. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 579–583.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Canada-USA (CANUSA) Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. Adequacy of dialysis and nutrition in continuous peritoneal dialysis: association with clinical outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 198–207.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lutes R, Perlmutter J, Holley J, et al. Loss of residual renal function in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1993; 9: 165–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Li P, Chow K, Wong T, Leung C, Szeto C. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on residual renal function in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. A randomized, controlled study. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Suzuki H, Kanno Y, Sugahara S, Okada H, Nakamoto H. Effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker, calsartan, on residual renal function in patients on CAPD. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 1056–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Phakdeekitcharoen B, Leelasa-nguan P. Effects of an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker on potassium in CAPD patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 44: 738–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Axelsson J, Devuyst O, Nordfors L, Heimburger O, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B. Place of genotyping and phenotyping in understanding and potentially modifying outcomes in peritoneal dialysis patients. Kidney Int 2006; 70: S138–S145.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Verrina E, Amici G, Perfumo F, et al. The use of the PD Adequest mathematical model in pediatric patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 322–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Warady B, Watkins S, Fivush B, Andreoli S, Salusky I, Kohaut E, et al. Validation of PD Adequest 2.0 for pediatric dialysis patients. Pediatr Nephrol 2001; 16: 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Warady B. The use of the peritoneal equilibration test to modify peritoneal dialysis modality in children. Semin Dial 1994; 7: 403–408.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Johnson D, Mudge D, Blizzard S, et al. A comparison of peritoneal equilibration tests performed 1 and 4 weeks after PD commencement. Perit Dial Int 2004; 24: 460–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Schaefer F. Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis in children. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 99–118.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Warady B, Jennings J. The short PET in pediatrics. Perit Dial Int 2007; 27: 441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Twardowski Z, Prowant B, Moore H, Lou L, White E, Farris K. Short peritoneal equilibration test: impact of preceding dwell time. Adv Perit Dial 2003; 19: 53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Waniewski J, Heimburger D, Werynski A, et al. Aqueous solute concentrations and evaluation of mass transport coefficients in peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992; 7: 50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Fukuda M, Kawamura K, Okawa T, et al. The peritoneal equilibration test variables in pediatric CAPD patients. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1994; 36: 57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Haraldsson B. Assessing the peritoneal dialysis capacities of individual patients. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 1187–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Biesen W, Van Der Tol A, Veys N, Dequidt C, Vijt D, Lameire N, et al. The personal dialysis capacity test is superior to the peritoneal equilibration test to discriminate inflammation as the cause of fast transport status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 269–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Peritoneal Dialysis Adequacy. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37 (suppl. 1): S65–S134.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Bargman J, Thorpe K, Churchill D. Relative contribution of residual renal function an dperitoneal clearance to adequacy of dialysis: a reanalysis of the CANUSA Study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2158–2162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Paniagua R, Amato D, Vonesh E, Correa-Rotter R, Ramos A, Moran J, et al. Effects of iincreased peritoneal clearances on mortality rates in peritoneal diaysis: ADEMEX, a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13 (5): 1307–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Lo W, Lui S, Chan T, Li F, Lam M, Tse K, et al. Minimal and optimal peritoneal Kt/V targets: results of an anuric peritoneal dialysis patient's survival analysis. Kidney Int 2005; 67 (5): 2032–2038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Wühl E, Fusch C, Schärer K, et al. Assessment of total body water in paediatric patients on dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996; 11: 75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Morgenstern B, Nair K, Lerner G, Neu A, quan A, Warady B. Impact of total body water errors on Kt/V estimates in children on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 2001; 17: 260–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Mendley S, Majkowski N, Schoeller D. Validation of estimates of total body water in pediatric dialysis patients by deuterium dilution. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 2056–2062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Mellits D, Cheek D. The assessment of body water and fatness from infancy to adulthood. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 1970; 35: 12–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Morgenstern B, Mahoney D, Warady B. Estimating total body water in children on the basis of height and weight: a reevaluation of the formulas of Mellits and Cheek. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 1884–1888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Morgenstern B, Wuhl E, Sreekumaran Nair K, Warady B, Schaefer F. Anthropometric prediction of total body water in children who are on pediatric peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 285–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gehan E, George S. Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970; 54: 225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Vonesh E, Burkart J, McMurray S, et al. Peritoneal dialysis kinetic modeling: validation in a multicenter clinical study. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 471–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Churchill D, Thorpe K, Nolph K, et al. Increased peritoneal membrane transport is associated with decreased patient and technique survival for continuous peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 1285–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Heimburger O, Stenvinkel P, Berglund L, et al. Increased plasma lipoprotein (a) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is related to peritoneal transport of proteins and glucose. Nephron 1996; 72: 135–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Nelson P, Stoker J. Principles of nutritional assessment and management of the child with ESRD. In: Fine R, Gruskin A, editors. End Stage Renal Disease in Children. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1984: 209–226.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Hellerstein S, Holliday M, Grupe W, et al. Nurtitional management of children with chronic renal failure. Summary of the task force on nutritional management of children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 1: 195–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Salusky I. Nutritional management of pediatric patients on chronic dialysis. In: Nissenson A, Fine R, Gentile D, editors. Clinical Dialysis. Norwalk: Appleton & Lange, 1995: 535–548.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Hanning R, Balfe J, Zlotkin S. Effectiveness and nutritional consequences of amino acid-based vs. glucose-based dialysis solutions in infants and children receiving CAPD. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46: 22–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Blumenkrantz M, Schmidt R. Nutritional management of the CAPD patient. Perit Dial Bull 1981; 1: 22–24.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Gayathir National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989: 1–284.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Salusky I, Fine R, Nelson P, et al. Nutritional status of children undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 38: 599–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Querfeld U, Salusky I, Nelson P, et al. Hyperlipidemia in pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1988; 2: 447–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Scolnik D, Balfe J. Initial hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia persist during chronic peritoneal dialysis in children. Perit Dial Int 1993; 13: 136–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Lifshitz F, Moses N. A complication of dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143: 537–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Workshop Proceedings. An evaluation of the 1990 Canadian Nutrition Recommendations for total fat/saturated fat intake for children between the ages of 12 and 18 years. In: Kubow S, editor. Kush Medical Communications, McGill University, 1990: 1–52.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35 (suppl. 2): S1–S140.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Wingen A, Fabian-Bach C, Schaefer F, Mehls O, European Study Group for Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. Randomised multicentre study of a low-protein diet on the progression of chronic renal failure in children. Lancet 1997; 349: 1117–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Cano F, Azocar M, Delucchi M, Rodriguez E, Marin V, Diaz E, et al. Nitrogen balance studies and Kt/V urea in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 2004; 20: 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Meireles C, Price S, Pereira A, Carvalhaes J, Mitch W. Nutrition and chronic renal failure in rats: what is an optimal dietary protein? J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 2367–2373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Elias R, McArdle A, Gagnon R. The effectiveness of protein supplementation on the nutritional management of patients on CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 1989; 5: 177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Buchwald R, Pena J. Evaluation of nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1989; 9: 295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Wassner S, Abitbol C, Alexander S, et al. Nutritional requirements for infants with renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1986; 7: 300–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Stein A, Moorhouse J, Iles-Smith H, et al. Role of an improvement in acid-base status and nutrition in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 1997; 52: 1089–1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Jones M, Hagen T, Algrim-Boyle C, et al. Treatment of malnutrition with 1.1% amino acid peritoneal dialysis solution: results of a multicenter outpatient study. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: 761–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Litwin M, Wuhl E, Jourdan C, Trelewicz J, Niemirska A, Fahr K, et al. Altered morphologic properties of large arteries in children with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 1494–1500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Mahdavi H, Kuizon B, Gales B, Wang H, Elashoff R, Salusky I. Sevelamer hydrochloride: an effective phosphate binder in dialyzed children. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 1260–1264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Pieper A, Haffner D, Hoppe B, Dittrich K, Offner G, Bonzel K, et al. A randomized crossover trial comparing sevelamer with calcium acetate in children with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: 625–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Freitas D, Donne R, Hutchison A. Lanthanum carbonate-a first line phosphate binder? Semin Dial 2007; 20: 325–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Roodhooft A, Van Hoeck K, Van Acker K. Hypophosphatemia in infants on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 1990; 34: 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Warady B, Borum P, Stall C, et al. Carnitine status of pediatric patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Nephrol 1990; 10: 109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Murakami R, Momota T, Yoshiya K, et al. Serum carnitine and nutritional status in children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1990; 11: 371–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Belay B, Esteban, Cruciani N, Walsh C, Kaskel F. The use of levo-carnitine in children with renal disease: a review and a call for future studies. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21 (3): 308–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Tamura T, Vaughn W, Waldo F, et al. Zinc and copper balance in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1989; 3: 309–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Zlotkin S, Rundle M, Hanning R, et al. Zinc absorption from the glucose and amino acid dialysates in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 345–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Wong C, Gipson D, Gillen D, Emerson S, Koepsell T, Sherrard D, et al. Anthropometric measures and risk of death in children with end-stage renal disease. 2000; 36: 811–819.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Golper T, Churchill D, Burkhart J, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for peritoneal dialysis adequacy. National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative. New York:National Kidney Foundation, 1997.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Kopple J, Jones M, Keshaviah P, et al. A proposed glossary for dialysis kinetics. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26: 963–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Schaefer F, Wuhl E, Feneberg R, Mehls O, Scharer K. Assessment of body composition in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14: 673–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Levin L, Balfe J, Geary D, et al. Gastrostomy tube feeding in children on CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 1987; 7: 223–226.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Balfe J, Secker D, Coulter P, et al. Tube feeding in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 257–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    O'Regan S, Garel L. Percutaneous gastrojejunostomy for caloric supplementation in children on peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 273–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Warady B, Kriley M, Belden B, et al. Nutritional and behavioral aspects of nasogastric tube feedings in infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Wood E, Bunchman T, Khurana R, et al. Complications of nasogastric and gastrostomy tube feeding in infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 162–164.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Brewer E. Growth of small children managed with chronic peritoneal dialysis and nasogastric tube feedings: 203 months experience in 14 patients. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 269–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Yiu V, Harmon W, Spinozzi N, Jonas M, Kim M. High-calorie nutrition for infants with chronic renal disease. J Ren Nutr 1996; 6: 203–206.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Coleman J, Watson A, Rance C, Moore E. Gastrostomy buttons for nutritional support on chronic dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 2041–2046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Ramage I, Geary D, Harvey E, Secker D, Balfe J, Balfe J. Efficacy of gastrostomy feeding in infants and older children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19: 231–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Ledermann S, Shaw V, Trompeter R. Long-term enteral nutrition in infants and young children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1999; 13: 870–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 309.
    Garel L, O'Regan S. Percutaneous gastrojejunostomy for enteral alimentation in children on chronic cycler peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1988; 4: 79–83.Google Scholar
  309. 310.
    Ledermann S, Spitz L, Moloney J, Rees L, Trompeter R. Gastrostomy feeding in infants and children on peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17: 246–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 311.
    von Schnakenburg C, Feneberg R, Plank C, Zimmering M, Arbeiter K, Bald M, et al. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2006; 26: 69–77.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Kamen R. Impaired development of oral-motor functions required for normal oral feeding as a consequence of tube feeding during infancy. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 276–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Holtta T, Ronnholm K, Jalanko H, Ala-Houhala M, Antikainen M, Holmberg C. Peritoneal dialysis in children under 5 years of age. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17: 573–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Becker N, Brandt J, Sutherland T, et al. Improved outcome of young children on nightly automated peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1997; 11: 676–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Warady B, Belden B, Kohaut E. Neurodevelopmental outcome of children initiating dialysis in early infancy. Pediatr Nephrol 1997; 13: 759–765.Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Ledermann S, Scanes M, Fernando O, Duffy P, Madden S, Trompeter R. Long-term outcome of peritoneal dilaysis in infants. J Pediatr 2000; 136: 24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Geary D. Attitudes of pediatric nephrologists to management of end-stage renal disease in infants. J Pediatr 1998; 133: 154–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Cohen C. Ethical and legal considerations in the care of the infant with end-stage renal disease whose parents elect conservative therapy: an American perspective. Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 1: 166–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Shooter M, Watson A. The ethics of withholding and withdrawing dialysis therapy in infants. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14: 347–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Wood E, Hand M, Briscoe D, Donaldson L, Yiu V, Harley F, et al. Risk factors for mortality in infants and young children on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 573–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ellis E, Pearson D, Champion V, Wood E. Outcome of infants on chronic dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1995; 11: 266–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Holtta T, Ronnholm K, Jalanko H, Holmberg C. Clinical outcome of pediatric patients on peritoneal dialysis under adequacy control. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14: 889–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Bunchman T. Chronic dialysis in the infant less than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol 1995; 9: S18–S22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Kim J, Deputy S, Vives M, Aviles D. Sudden blindness in a child with end–stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 691–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Neu A, Warady B. Special considerations in the care of the infant CAPD/CCPD patient. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 169–182.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Kohaut E, Welchel J, Waldo F, et al. Aggressive therapy of infants with renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 1: 150–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Qamar I, Balfe J. Experience with chronic peritoneal dialysis in infants. Child Nephrol Urol 1991; 11: 159–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Jaramillo-Solorio R, Menodoza-Guevara L, Garcia-Lopez E. Intellectual output of children with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S554–S556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Paulson W, Bock G, Nelson A, et al. Hyponatremia in the very young chronic peritoneal dialysis patient. Am J Kidney Dis 1989; 14: 196–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Morgenstern B. Peritoneal equilibration in children. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S532–S539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Geary D. Performance and interpretation of the peritoneal equilibration test in children. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S540–S542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Ramage I, Bradbury M, Braj B, et al. Early continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis failure in infants: rescue tidal peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 437–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Tapper D, Watkins S, Burns M, et al. Comprehensive management of renal failure in infants. Arch Surg 1990; 125: 1276–1281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Aguilar A, Mendoza L, Morales A, et al. Disconnect systems in children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Transplant Proc 1996; 28: 3388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Gokal R, Alexander S, Ash S, et al. Peritoneal catheters and exit-site practices toward optimum peritonela access. 1998; 18: 11–33.Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Rinaldi S, Sera F, Verrina E, et al. The Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: a ten-year experience with chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Warady B, Sullivan E, Alexander S. Lessons from the peritoneal dialysis patient database: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Kidney Int 1996; 49 (suppl. 53): S68–S71.Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Verrina E, Zacchello G, Perfumo F, et al. Clinical experience in the treatment of infants with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1995; 11: 281–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Honda M. The Japanese experience with CAPD/CCPD in children. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 35–48.Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Katz A, Kashtan C, Greenberg L, et al. Hypogammaglobulinemia in uremic infants receiving peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 1990; 117: 258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Kuizon B, Melocoton T, Holloway M, et al. Infectious and catheter-related complications in pediatric patients treated with peritoneal dialysis at a single institution. Pediatr Nephrol 1997; 9: S12–S17.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Neu A, Warady B, Lederman H, et al. Hypogammaglobulinemia in infants and young children maintained on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 440–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Turenne M, Port F, Strawderman R, et al. Growth rates in pediatric dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 193–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Brodehl J, Offner G, Pichlmayr R, et al. Kidney transplantation in infants and young children. Transplant Proc 1986; XVIII (suppl, 4): 8–11.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Koffman C, Rigden S, Bewick M, et al. Renal transplantation in children less than five years of age. Transplant Proc 1989; 21: 2001–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Kalia A, Brouhard B, Travis L, et al. Renal transplantation in the infant and young child. Am J Dis Child 1988; 142: 47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    McMahon Y, MacDonell R, Richie R, et al. Is kidney transplantation in the very small child (K10 kg) worth it? Transplant Proc 1989; 21: 2003–2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Nevins T. Treatment of very young infants with ESRD-renal transplantation as soon as possible (<1 yr of age): controversy. Adv Perit Dial 1990; 6: 283–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Najarian J, Frey D, Matas A, et al. Successful kidney transplantation in infants. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 1382–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Tagge E, Campbell D, Dafoe D, et al. Pediatric renal transplantation with an emphasis on the prognosis of patients with chronic renal insufficiency since infancy. Surgery 1987; 102: 692–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Nevins T. Transplantation in infants less than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 1: 154–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Fine R. Renal transplantation of the infant and yung child and the use of pediatric cadaver kidneys for transplantation in pediatric and adult populations. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 12: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    MacDonald H. Chronic renal disease: the mother's experience. Pediatr Nurs 1995; 21: 503–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Bunchman T. The ethics of infant dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: S505–S508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Eschbach J, Abdulhadi M, Browne J, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in amemic patients with end-stage renal disease: results of a phase III multicenter clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 992–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Winearls C, Oliver D, Pippard M, et al. Effect of human erythropoietin derived from recombination DNA on the anemia of patients maintained by chronic hemodialysis. Lancet 1986; 2: 1175–1178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Bennett W. A multicenter clinical trial of Epoetin beta for anemia of end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1991; 1: 990–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Sinai-Trieman L, Salusky I, Fine R. Use of subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin in children undergoing continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 1989; 114: 550–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Warady B, Sabath R, Smith C, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in pediatric patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1991; 5: 718–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Alexander S. Pediatric uses of recombinant human erythropoietin: the outlook in 1991. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 18 (suppl. 1): 42–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Muta K, Krantz S. Apoptosis of human erythroid colony-forming cells is decreased by stem cell factor and insulin-like growth factor I as well as erythropoietin. J Cell Physiol 1993; 156 (2): 264–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Muta K, Krantz S, Bondurant M, Wickrema A. Distinct roles of erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor I, and stem cell factor in the development of erythroid progenitor cells. J Clin Invest 1994; 94 (1): 34–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Evans R, Rader B, Manninen D. The quality of life of hemodialysis recipients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. JAMA 1990; 263: 825–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group. Association between recombinant human erythropoietin and quality of life and exercise capacity of patients receiving hemodialysis. Br Med J 1990; 300: 573–578.Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Eschbach J. The anemia of chronic renal failure: pathophysiology and the effects of recombinant erythropoietin. Kidney Int 1989; 35: 134–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Baum M, Powell D, Calvin S, et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children: comparison with hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1537–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Chavers B, Sullivan E, Tejani A, et al. Pre-transplant blood transfusion and renal allograft outcome: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Transplant 1997; 1: 122–128.Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Grimm P, Sinai-Trieman L, Sekiya N, et al. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on HLA sensitization and cell mediated immunity. Kidney Int 1990; 38: 12–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    French C, Genei M. Pathophysiology of growth failure in chronic renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 1984; 30: S59–S64.Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Rizzoni G, Broyer M, Guest G, et al. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease: Scopt of the problem. Am J Kidney Dis 1986; 7: 256–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Stefanidis C, Koulieri A, Siapera D, et al. Effect of correction of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin on growth of children treated with CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 1992; 8: 460–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Boehm M, Riesenhuber A, Winkelmayer W, Arbeiter K, Mueller T, Aufricht C. Early erythropoietin therapy is associated with improved growth in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 1189–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Fennel R, Rasbury W, Fennell E, et al. Effects of kidney transplantation on cognitive performance in a pediatric population. Pediatrics 1984; 74: 273–278.Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    Montini G, Zacchello G, Baraldi E, et al. Benefits and risks of anemia correction with rrecombinant human erythropoietin in children maintained by hemodialysis. J Pediatr 1990; 117: 556–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Temple R, Deary I, Winney R. Recombinant erythropoietin improves cognitive function in patients maintained in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10: 1733–1738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Pattaragarn A, Warady B, Sabath R. Exercise capacity in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Perit Dial Int 2004; 24: 274–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Amaral S, Hwang W, Fivush B, Neu A, Frankenfield D, Furth S. Association of mortality and hospitalization with achievement of adult hemoglobin targets in adolescents maintained on hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 2878–2885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Gerson A, Hwang W, Fiorenza J, Barth K, Kaskel F, Weiss L, et al. Anemia and health-related quality of life in adoelscents with chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 44 (6): 1017–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Warady B, Ho M. Morbidity and mortality in children with anemia at initiation of dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 1055–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Jabs K, Harmon W. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in children on dialysis. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1996; 3: 24–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Jabs K, Harmon W. Anemia and its treatment in children on CAPD/CCPD. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 183–198.Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Yorgin P, Al-Uzri A. Management of renal anemia. In: Warady B, Schaefer F, Fine R, Alexander S, editors. Pediatric Dialysis. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 295–331.Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    De Palo T, Giordano M, Palumbo F, Bellantuono R, Messina G, Colella V, et al. Clinical experience with darbepoietin alfa (NESP) in children undergoing hemodialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 337–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Geary D, Keating L, Vigneux A, Stephens D, Hebert D, Harvey E. Darbepoetin alfa (AranespTM ) in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 1759–1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Warady B, Arar M, Lerner G, Nakanishi A, Stehman-Breen C. Darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of anemia in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21: 1144–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Andre J, Deschenes G, Boudailliez B, Broux F, Fischbach M, Gagnadous M, et al. Darbepoetin, effective treatment of anaemia in paediatric patients with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 708–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47 (suppl. 3): S1–S146.Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Singh A, Szczech L, Tang K, Barnhart H, Sapp S, Wolfson M, et al. Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355 (20): 2085–2098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Drueke T, Locatelli F, Clyne N, Eckardt K, Macdougall I, Tsakiris D, et al. Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355 (20): 2071–2084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Edmunds M, Walls J, Tucker B, et al. Seizures in haemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1989; 4:1065–1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    van Wyck D. Iron management during recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 1989; 14 (suppl. 1): 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Warady B, Kausz A, Lerner G, Brewer E, Chadha V, Brugnara C, et al. Iron therapy in the pediatric hemodialysis population. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19:655–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Warady B, Zobrist R, Wu J, Finan E, The Ferrlecit Pediatric Study Group. Sodium ferric gluconate complex therapy in anemic children on hemodialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20: 1320–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Reddingus R, Schroder C, Monnens L. Intraperitoneal administration of recombinant human erythropoietin in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Pediatr 1992; 151: 540–542.Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Reddingius R, Schroder C, Koster A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin in children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Pediatr 1994; 153: 850–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Port R, Kiepe D, Van Guilder M, Jelliffe R, Mehls O. Recombinant human eyrhtopoietin for the treatment of renal anaemia in children: no justification for bodyweight-adjusted dosage. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43 (1): 57–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Hörl W. Iron therapy for renal anemia: how much needed, how much harmful? Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 480–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Deicher R, Horl W. New insights into the regulation of iron homeostasis. Eur J Clin Invest 2006; 36: 301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Crosby W. The rationale for treating iron deficiency anemia. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 471–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Attallah N, Osman-Malik Y, Frinak S, Besarab A. Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with EPO-hyporesponsive anemia and hyperferritinemia. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47 (4): 644–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Zager R. Intravenous iron therapy in peritoneal dialysis patients: Short-term efficacy and long-term issues. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 353–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Navarro M, Alonso A, Avilla J. Anemia of chronic renal failure. Treatment with erythropoietin. Child Nephrol Urol 1991; 11: 146–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Rad D, Shih M, Mohini R. Effect of serum parathyroid hormone and bone marrow fibrosis on the response to erythropoietin in uremia. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 171–175.Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    Hymes L, Hawthorne S, Chavers B. Impaired response to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in children with peritonitis. Dial Transplant 1994; 23: 462–463.Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Neu A, Lederman H, Warady B, et al. Humoral immunity in infants maintained on CPD. J Am Soc Nephrol 1994; 5: 467.Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Schroder C, Bakkeren J, Weemaes C, et al. IgG2 deficiency in young children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Perit Dial Int 1989; 9: 261–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Neu A. Immunizations. In: Warady B, Schaefer F, Fine R, Alexander S, editors. Pediatric Dialysis. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 383–392.Google Scholar
  407. 407.
    Fivush B, Neu A. Immunization guidelines for pediatric renal disease. Semin Nephrol 1998; 18: 256–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommended immunization schedules for children and adolescents – United States, 2007. Pediatrics 2007; 119: 207–208.Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Laube G, Berger C, Goetschel P, Leumann E, Neuhaus T. Immunization in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 2002; 17: 638–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prevention of varicella: recommdnations for use of varicella vaccines in children, including a recommendation for a routine 2-dose varicella immunization schedule. Pediatrics 2007; 120: 221–231.Google Scholar
  411. 411.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbid Mortal Weekly Rpt 1996; 45 (RR 11:1): 1–25.Google Scholar
  412. 412.
    Furth S, Neu A, McColley S, et al. Immune response to influenza vaccination in children with renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 1995; 9: 566–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Wadwa R, Feigin R. Pneumococcal vaccine: an update. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 1035–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbid Mortal Wkly Rpt 2002; 51 (RR 03:1): 1–31.Google Scholar
  415. 415.
    Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2006–2007. Pediatrics 2007; 119: 846–851.Google Scholar
  416. 416.
    Prelog M, Pohl M, Ermisch B, Fuchshuber A, Huzly D, Jungraithmayr T, et al. Demand for evaluation of vaccination antibody titers in children considered for renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 2007; 11: 73–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Rangel M, Coronado V, Euler G, Strikas R. Vaccine recommendations for patients on chronic dialysis. Semin Dial 2000; 13: 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Hokken-Koelega A, van Zaal M, van Bergen W, et al. Final height and its predictive factors after renal transplantation in childhood. Pediatr Res 1994; 36: 323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Ninik A, McTaggart S, Gulati S, Powell H, Jones C, Walker R. Factors influencing growth and final height after renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 2002; 6: 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Haffner D, Schaefer F, Girard J, Ritz E, Mehls O. Metabolic clearance of recombinant human growth hormone in health and chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest 1994; 93: 1163–1171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Ding H, Gao X, Hirschberg R, Vadgama J, Kopple J. Impaired actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 on protein symthesis and degradation in skeletal muscle of rats with chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 1064–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Schaefer F, Chen Y, Tsao T, Nouri P, Rabkin R. Impaired JAK-STAT signal transduction contributes to growth hormone resistance in chronic uremia. J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Fine R, Ho M, Tejani A, Blethen S. Adverse events with rhGH treatment of patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease. J Pediatr 2003; 142: 539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Haffner D, Schaefer F, Nissel R, Wuhl E, Tonshoff B, Mehls O. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med 2000; 343 923–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Salusky I, Goodman W. Growth hormone and calcitriol as modifiers of bone formation in renal osteodystrophy. Kidney Int 1995; 48: 657–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Kuizon B, Salusky I. Diagnosis and treatment of renal bone diseases in children undergoing CAPD/CCPD. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 199–217.Google Scholar
  427. 427.
    Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M, Bahner M, Raggi P, Querfeld U, et al. Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhhod-onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 2002; 106: 100–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Goodman, Ramirez J, Belin T, Chon Y, Gales B, Segre G, et al. Development of adynamic bone in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism after intermittent calcitriol therapy. Kidney Int 1994; 46: 1160–1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Waller S, Ridout D, Cantor T, Rees L. Parathyroid hormone and growth in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 2338–2345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Cansick J, Waller S, Ridout D, Rees L. Growth and PTH in prepubertal children on long-term dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 1349–1354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Kuizon B, Goodman W, Juppner H, et al. Diminished linear growth during intermittent calcitriol therapy in children undergoing CCPD. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Schmitt C, Ardissino G, Testa S, Claris-Appiani A, Mehls O. Growth in children with chronic renal failure on intermittent versus daily calcitriol. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 440–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Ardissino G, Schmitt C, Bianchi M, Dacco V, Claris-Appiani A, Mehls O. No difference in intestinal strontium absorption after oral or IV calcitriol in children with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The European Study Group on Vitamin D in Children with Renal Failure. Kidney Int 2000; 58: 981–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Ardissino G, Schmitt C, Testa S, Claris-Appiani A, Mehls O. Calcitriol pulse therapy is not more effective than daily calcitriol therapy in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism in children with chronic renal failure. European Study Group on Vitamin D in Children with Renal Failure. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14 (7): 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Caravaca F, Cubero J, Jimenez F, Lopez J, Aparicio A, Cid M, et al. Effect of the mode of calcitriol administration on PTH-ionized calcium relationship in uraemic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10: 665–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Strippoli G, Tong A, Palmer S, Elder G, Craig J. Calcimimetics for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; Oct 18(4):CD006254.Google Scholar
  437. 437.
    Nakagawa K, Geldyyev A, Oh J, Gross M, Santos F, Schaefer F, et al. Calcimimetics do not alter epiphyseal growth in healthy and uremic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 132A.Google Scholar
  438. 438.
    Port F, Held P, Nolph K, et al. Risk of peritonitis and technique failure by CAPD connection technique: a national study. Kidney Int 1992; 42: 967–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Warady B, Campoy S, Gross S, et al. Peritonitis with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 1984; 1015: 726–730.Google Scholar
  440. 440.
    Watson A, Vigneux A, Bannatyne R, et al. Peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children. CMAJ 1986; 134: 1019–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Levy M, Balfe J. Optimal aproach to the prevention and treaetment of peritonitis in children undergoing continuous ambulatory and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis. Semin Dial 1994; 7: 442–449.Google Scholar
  442. 442.
    Harvey E, Secker D, Braj B, et al. The team approach to the management of children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1996; 3: 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Warady B, Feneberg R, Verrina E, Flynn J, Muller-Wiefel D, Besbas N, et al. Peritonitis in children who receive long-term peritoneal dialysis: a prospective evaluation of therapeutic guidelines. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 2172–2179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Kingwatanakul P, Warady B. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1997; 13: 280–283.Google Scholar
  445. 445.
    Vas S. VRE and emperical vancomycin for CAPD peritonitis: use at your own/patient's risk. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 86–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Schaefer F, Feneberg R, Aksu N, Donmez O, Sadikoglu B, Alexander SR,, et al. Worldwide variation of dialysis-associated peritonitis in children. Kidney Int 2007; 72 (11): 1374–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Vas S. VRD and emperical vancomycin for CAPD peritonitis: use at your own/patient's risk. Perit Dial Int 1998; 18: 86–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Troidle L, Kliger A, Gorban-Brennan N, et al. Nine episodes of CPD-associated peritonitis with vancomycin resistant enterococci. Kidney Int 1996; 50: 1368–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Warady B, Reed L, Murphy G, et al. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity in pediatric patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1993; 7: 178–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Keane W, Alexander S, Bailie G, et al. Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis treatment recommendations: 1996 update. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16: 557–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Schaefer F, Klaus G, Muller-Wiefel D, et al. Intermittent versus continuous intraperitoneal glycopeptide/ceftazidime treatment in childrenwith peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 136–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Alexander S, Lindblad A, Nolph K, Novak J. Pediatric CAPD/CCPD in the United States: a review of the National CAPD Registry's Population for the Period January 1, 1981 through August 31, 1986. In: Twardowski Z, Nolph K, Khanna R, editors. Peritoneal Dialysis, New Concenpts and. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990: 231–255.Google Scholar
  453. 453.
    Levy M, Balfe J, Geary D, et al. Exit-site infection during continuous and cycling peritoneal dialysis in children. Perit Dial Int 1990; 10:31–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Dombros N, Dratwa M, Feriani M, et al. European best practice guidelines for peritoneal dialysis 3. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: ix8–ix12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    The Mupirocin Study Group. Nasal mupirocin prevents staphylococcus aureus exit-site infection during peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7 (11): 2403–2408.Google Scholar
  456. 456.
    Lobbedez T, Gardam M, Dedier H, et al. Routine use of mupirocin at the peritoneal catheter exit site and mupirocin resistance: Still low after 7 years. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 3140–3143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Perez-Fontan M, Rosales M, Rodriguez-Carmona A, et al. Mupirocin resistance after long-term use for Staphylococcus aureus colonization in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 337–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Bonifati C, Pansini F, Torres D, Navaneethan S, Craig J, Strippoli G. Antimicrobial agents and catheter-related interventions to prevent peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: using evidence in the context of clinical practice. Int J Artif Organs 2006; 29 (1): 41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Wong S, Chu K, Cheuk A, et al. Prophylaxis against gram-positive organisms causing exit-site infection and peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients by applying mupirocin ointment at the catheter exit-site. Perit Dial Int 2003; 23:153–158.Google Scholar
  460. 460.
    Bernardini J, Bender F, Florio T, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of antibiotic exit site cream for prevention of exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Crabtree J, Burchette R. Surgical salvage of peritoneal dialysis catheters from chronic exit-site and tunnel infections. Am J Surg 2005; 190 (1): 4–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Scalamogna A, De Vecchi A, Maccario M, Castelnovo C, Ponticelli C. Cuff-shaving procedure. A rescue treatment for exit-site infection unresponsive to medical therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10: 2325–2327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Wu Y, Tsai M, Chao S, et al. Surgical management of refractory exit-site/tunnel infection of Tenckhoff catheter: technical innovations of partial replantation. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19: 451–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    Yoshino A, Honda M, Ikeda M, et al. Merit of the cuff-shaving procedure in children with chronic infection. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 1267–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    Khoury A, Charendoff J, Balfe J, et al. Hernias associated with CAPD in children. Adv Perit Dial 1991; 7: 279–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    von Lilien T, Salusky I, Yap H, et al. Hernias: a frequent complication in children treated with continuous peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1987; 10: 356–360.Google Scholar
  467. 467.
    Harvey E. Non-infectious complications of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. In: Warady B, Schaefer F, Fine R, Alexander S, editors. Pediatric Dialysis. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 45–441.Google Scholar
  468. 468.
    Robson W, Leung A, Putnins R, et al. Genital edema in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Child Nephrol Urol 1990; 10: 205–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. 469.
    Ducassou D, Vuillemin L, Wone C, et al. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in visualization of a peritoneo-vaginalis connection. J Nucl Med 1984; 25: 68–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Scheldewaert R, Rogaerts Y, Pauvels R, et al. Management of massive hydrothorax in a CAPD patient. a case report and review of the literature. Perit Dial Bull 1987; 2: 69–72.Google Scholar
  471. 471.
    Leveen H, Piccone V, Hutto R. Management of ascites with hydrothorax. Am J Surg 1984; 148: 210–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    Hidai H, Takatsu S, Chiba T. Intrathoracic instillation of autologous blood in treating massive hydrothorax following CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1989; 9: 221–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Mestas D, Wauquier J, Escande G, et al. A diagnosis of hydrothorax-complicated CAPD and demonstrations of successful therapy by scintography. Perit Dial Int 1991; 11: 283–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    Arbeiter K, Aufricht C, Mueller T, Balzar E, Prokesch R. MRI in the diagnosis of a peritoneal leak in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Radiol 2001; 31: 745–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 475.
    Auron A, Shao L, Warady B. Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2006; 21 (9): 1307–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    Steen H, Schwenger V. Good MRI images: to Gad or not to Gad? Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 1239–1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    Townsend R, Fragula J. Hydrothorax in a patient receiving CAPD. Arch Intern Med 1982; 142: 1571–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    Benz R, Schleifer C. Hydrothorax in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Successful treatment with intrapleural tetracycline and a review of the literature. Am J Kidney Dis 1985; 5: 136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. 479.
    Simmons L, Mir R. A review of management of pleuroperitoneal communication in five CAPD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1989; 5: 81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. 480.
    Araki Y, Hataya H, Tanaka Y, Fukuzawa R, Ikeda M, Kawamura K, et al. Long-term peritoneal dialysis is a risk factor of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis for children. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20: 445–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    Rigby R, Hawley C. Sclerosing peritonitis: the experience in Australia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. 482.
    Hoshii S, Honda M, Itami N, Oh S, Matsumura C, Moriya S, et al. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14 (4): 275–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. 483.
    Hoshii S, Honda M. High incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in pediatric patients on peritoneal dialysis longer than 10 years. Perit Dial Int 2002; 2 (6): 730–731.Google Scholar
  484. 484.
    Ford D, Portman R, Lum G. Pancreatitis in children on chronic dialysis treated with valproic acid. Pediatr Nephrol 1990; 4: 259–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. 485.
    Osorio A, Seidel F, Warady B. Hypercalcemia and pancreatitis in a child with adynamic bone disease. Pediatr Nephrol 1997; 11: 223–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. 486.
    Gupta A, Yuan Z, Balaskas E, et al. CAPD and pancreatitis: no connection. Perit Dial Int 1992; 12: 309–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. 487.
    Fivush B, Case B, May M, et al. Hypogammaglobulinemia in children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 1989; 3: 186–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. 488.
    Grunberg J, Verocay M, Rébori A, Pouso J. Comparison of chronic peritoneal dialysis outcomes in children with and without spina bifida. 2007; 22: 4 (573): 577.Google Scholar
  489. 489.
    Hendren W, Hendren R. Bladder augmentation: experience with 129 children and young adults. J Urol 1990; 144: 445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. 490.
    Gerson A, Furth S. Assessing the quality of life of children on dialysis. In: Warady B, Schaefer F, Fine R, Alexander S, editors. Pediatric Diaysis. Norwell: Kluer Academic Publishers, 2004: 471–484.Google Scholar
  491. 491.
    Brownbridge G, Fielding D. Psychosocial adjustment to end-stage renal failure: comparing haemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 1991; 5: 612–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. 492.
    LePontois J, Moel D, Cohn R. Family adjustment to pediatric ambulatory dialysis. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1987; 57: 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. 493.
    Watson A. Stress and burden of care in families with children commencing renal replacement therapy. Adv Perit Dial 1997; 13: 300–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. 494.
    Varni J, Seid M, Kurtin P. PedsQL 4.0: reliability and validity of the pediatric quality of life inventory version 4.0 generic core scales in healthy and patient populations. Med Care 2001; 39: 800–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. 495.
    Varni J, Seid M, Knight T, Uzark K, Szer I. The PedsQL 4.0 generic core scales: Sensitivity, responsiveness, and impact on clinical decision-making. J Behav Med 2002; 25: 175–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. 496.
    Varni J, Burwinkle T, Seid M, Skarr D. The PedsQL 4.0 as a pediatric population health measure: feasbility, reliability, and validity. Ambul Pediatr 2003; 3: 329–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. 497.
    Rosenkranz J, Bonzel K, Bulla M, et al. Psychosocial adaptation of childrne and adolescents with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1992; 6: 459–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    Broyer M, Le Bihan C, Charbit M, Guest G, Tete M, Gagnadoux M, et al. Long-term social outcome of children after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 2004; 77 (7): 1033–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. 499.
    Rosenkranz J, Reichwald-Klugger E, Oh J, Turzer M, Mehls O, Schaefer F. Psychosocial rehabilitation and satisfaction with life in adults with childhood-onset of end-stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20 (9): 1288–1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. 500.
    Fine R, Scharer K. Renal transplantation in children treated by CAPD. A report on a cooperative study. In: Fine R, Scharer K, Mehls O, editors. CAPD in Children. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1985: 212–220.Google Scholar
  501. 501.
    Salvatierra OJ, Alexander S, Krensky A. Pediatric kidney transplantation at Stanford. Pediatr Transplant 1998; 2: 165–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. 502.
    Nevins T. Prior dialysis does not affect the outcome of pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 1991; 5: 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. 503.
    Laine J, Holmberg C, Samela K, et al. Renal transplantation in children with emphasis on young patients. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    Ogawa O, Hoshinaga K, Hasegawa A, et al. Successful transplantation in children treated with CAPD. Transplant Proc 1997; 21: 1997–1999.Google Scholar
  505. 505.
    Van Biesen W, Vanholder R, Van Loo A, Van Der Vennet M, Lameire N. Peritoneal dialysis favorably influences early graft function after renal transplantation compared to hemodialysis. Transplantation 2000; 69: 508–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. 506.
    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev A, Hurdle J, Scandling J, Baird B, Cheung A. The role of pretransplantation renal replacement therapy modality in kidney allograft and recipient survival. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 537–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. 507.
    Vats A, Donaldson L, Fine R, Chavers B. Pretransplant dialysis status and outcome of renal transplantation in North American children: a NAPRTCS study. Transplantation 2000; 69: 1414–1419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. 508.
    McDonald R, Smith J, Stablein D, Harmon W. Pretransplant peritoneal dialysis and graft thrombosis following pediatric kidney transplantation: a NAPRTCS report. Pediatr Transplant 2003; 7: 204–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. 509.
    Ojo A, Hanson J, Wolfe R. Dialysis modality and the risk of graft thrombosis in adult renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 1952–1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. 510.
    Bertoli M, Gasparotto M, Vertolli U, Ruffatti A, Di Landro D, Romagnoli G. Does hypercoagulability exist in CAPD paatients? Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4: 237–239.Google Scholar
  511. 511.
    Kranz B, Vester U, Nadalin S, Paul A, Broelsch C, Hoyer P. Outcome after kidney transplantation in children with thrombotic risk factors. Pediatr Transplant 2006; 10: 788–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. 512.
    Neu A, Warady B, Furth S, Lederman H, Fivush B. Antibody levels to diphtheria, tetanus and rubella in infants vaccinated while on PD: a report of the Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Consortium. Adv Perit Dial 1997; 13: 297–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    Flynn J, Frisch K, Kershaw D, Sedman A, Bunchman T. Response to early measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in infants with chronic renal failure and/or receiving peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 1999; 15: 269–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    Thomas S, Hickman H, Tapper D, Shaw D, Fouser L, McDonald R. Asymptomatic inferior vena cava abnormalities in three children with end stage renal disease. Pediatr Transplant 2000; 4: 28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Eneriz-Wiemer M, Sarwal M, Donovan D, Costaglio C, Concepcion W, Salvatierra O. Successful renal transplantation in high-risk small children with a completely thrombosed inferior vena cava. Transplantation 2006; 82 (9): 1148–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    Chavers B. Transplantation of the pediatric CAPD/CCPD patient. In: Fine R, Alexander S, Warady B, editors. CAPD/CCPD in Children. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 57–72.Google Scholar
  517. 517.
    Andreeta B, Verrina E, Sorino P. Complications linked to chronic peritoneal dialysis in children after kidney transplantation. Experience of the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis. Perit Dial Int 1996; 16 (suppl. 1): S570–S575.Google Scholar
  518. 518.
    Leichter H, Salusky I, Ettenger R, et al. Experience with renal transplantation in childrenundergoing peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/CCPD). Am J Kidney Dis 1986; 8: 181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. 519.
    Stefanidis C, Balfe J, Arbus G, et al. Renal transplantation in children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1983; 3: 5–7.Google Scholar
  520. 520.
    Watson A, Vigneux A, Balfe J. Renal transplantation in children on CAPD and posttransplant acites. Perit Dial Bull 1984; 4: 189–191.Google Scholar
  521. 521.
    Palmer J, Kaiser B, Polinsky M, et al. Peritoneal dialysis catheter infections in children after renal transplantation. Choosing the time of removal. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 715–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. 522.
    Issad D, Mouquet C, Bitker M, et al. Is overhydration in CAPD patients a contraindication to renal transplantation? Adv Perit Dial 1994; 10: 68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. 523.
    Siegel N, Brown R. Peritoneal clearance of ammonia and creatinine in a neonate. J Pediatr 1973; 82: 1044–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. 524.
    Sperl W, Geiger R, Maurer H, et al. Continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration in hyperammonaemia of newborn babies. Lancet 1990; 336: 1192–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    Batshaw M, Brusilow S. Treatment of hyperammonemic coma caused by inborn errors of urea synthesis. J Pediatr 1980; 97: 893–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    Wiegand C, Thompson T, Bock G, et al. The management of life-threatening hyperammonemia: a comparison of several therapeutic modalities. J Pediatr 1980; 96: 142–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. 527.
    Rutledge S, Havens P, Haymond M, et al. Neonatal hemodialysis: effective therapy for the encephalopathy of inborn errors of metabolism. J Pediatr 1990; 116: 125–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. 528.
    Schaefer F, Daschner M. Dialytic management of inborn errors of metabolism. In: Warady B, Schaefer F, Fine R, Alexander S, editors. Pediatric Dialysis. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 585–593.Google Scholar
  529. 529.
    Schaefer F, Straube E, Mayatepek E, Mehls O. Dialysis in neonates with inborn errors of metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 910–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s Mercy HospitalKansas City
  2. 2.Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, HeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations