Treatment of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

  • Knuth RassEmail author
  • Wolfgang Tilgen
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 624)


The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in Caucasian populations worldwide. Treatment approaches for Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are predominandy curative and surgery can be regarded as standard of care. Nevertheless, novel and less invasive topical therapy modalities like photodynamic therapy or local immune modifiers are in progress.

In contrast to NMSC, the mortality of melanoma has not changed considerably over the last years and decades. Melanoma survival mainly depends on primary tumor thickness underlining the importance of primary and secondary prevention by avoidance or early detection of the disease. The chance to cure melanoma patients is steadily decreasing with tumor stage. As the prognosis in distant metastatic disease is still poor, except for single situations therapy approaches are palliative and accompanied by an optimal supportive care of the patients concerned. Albeit removal of localized metastases is currently the most effective approach in metastatic melanoma, chemo- and chemoimmunotherapy has to be regarded as standard treatment in most of the cases.

Novel and promising therapeutic options accrue from growing insights in tumor biology and immunology. Not only in melanoma, development and application of targeted therapies currendy attract the most attention in the treatment of advanced tumors. First clinical experiences with those antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and proapoptotic agents reveal only moderate antitumoral activity in melanoma, so that future efforts aim at defining more effective combination strategies using chemo-, targeted and vaccination therapy approaches.


Clin Oncol Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic Melanoma Melanoma Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Garbe C, Eigentler TK. Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: state of the art 2006. Melanoma Res 2007;17:117–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balch CM, Soong SJ, Gerschenwald JE et al. Prognostic factors analysis of 17.600 melanoma patients: validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3622–3634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ringborg U, Andersson R, Eldh J et al. Resection margins of 2 versus 5 cm for cutaneous malignant melanoma with a tumor thickness of 0.8 to 2.0 mm: randomized study by the Swedish Melanoma Study Group. Cancer 1996;77:1809–1814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Adamus J et al. Thin stage I primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Comparison of excision with margins of 1 or 3 cm. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1159–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas JM, Newton-Bishop J, A’Hern R et al. Excision margins in high-risk malignant melanoma. N Engl J Med 2004;350:757–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hauschild A, Rosien F, Lischner S. Surgical standards in the primary care of melanoma patients. Onkologie 2003;26:218–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cascinelli N, Morabito A, Santinami M et al. Immediate or delayed dissection of regional nodes in patients with melanoma of the trunk: A randomised trial. Lancet 1998;351:793–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gershenwald JE, Thompson W, Mansfield PF et al. Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:976–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH et al. Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg 1992;127:392–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ et al. Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1307–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balch CM, Buzaid AC, Soong SJ et al. Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3635–3648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wong SL, Coit DG. Role of surgery in patients with stage IV melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol 2004;16:155–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reinhardt MJ, Joe AY, Jaeger U et al. Diagnostic performance of whole body dual modality 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging for N-and M-staging of malignant melanoma: experience with 250 consecutive patients. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:1178–1187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stas M, Stroobants S, Dupont P et al 18-FDG-PET scan in the staging of recurrent melanoma: additional value and therapeutic impact. Melanoma Res 2002;12:479–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leo F, Cagini L, Rocmans P et al. Lung metastases from melanoma: when is surgical treatment warranted? Br J Cancer 2000;83:569–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tagawa ST, Cheung E, Banta W et al. Survival Analysis after resection of metastatic disease followed by peptide vaccines in patients with stage IV melanoma. Cancer 2006;106:1353–1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eggermont AMM, Suciu S, MacKie R et al. Postsurgery adjuvant therapy with intermediate doses of interferon alfa 2b versus observation in patients with stage IIb/III melanoma (EORTC 18952): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1189–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grob JJ, Dreno B, de la Salmoniere P et al. Randomised trial of interferon alpha-2a as adjuvant therapy in resected primary melanoma thicker than 1.5 mm without clinically detectable node metastases. French Cooperative Group on Melanoma. Lancet 1998;351:1905–1910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pehamberger H, Soyer HP, Steiner A et al. Adjuvant interferon alfa-2a treatment in resected primary stage II cutaneous melanoma. Austrian Malignant Melanoma Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1425–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garbe C, Hauschild A, Linse R et al. Adjuvant treatment of patients with cutaneous melanoma and regional node metastasis with low dose interferon-or interferon-plus DTIC versus observation alone. Preliminary evaluation of a randomised multicenter DeCOG trial. 5th International Conference on the Adjuvant Therapy of Malignant Melanoma, Abstract booklet, 2004; No 1-21, p. 14.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cascinelli N, Belli F, MacKie RM et al. Effect of long-term adjuvant therapy with interferon alpha-2a in patients with regional node metastases from cutaneous melanoma: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001;358:866–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hancock BW, Wheatley K, Harris S et al. Adjuvant interferon in high-risk melanoma: the AIM HIGH Study—United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research randomized study of adjuvant low-dose extended-duration interferon alfa-2a in high-risk resected malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kirkwood JM, Ibrahim JG, Sondak VK et al. High-and low-dose interferon alfa-2b in high-risk melanoma: first analysis of intergroup trial E1690/S9111/C9190. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2444–2458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kirkwood JM, Strawderman MH, Ernstoff MS et al. Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kirkwood JM, Ibrahim JG, Sosman JA et al. High-dose interferon alfa-2b significantly prolongs relapse-free and overall survival compared with the GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccine in patients with resected stage IIB-III melanoma: results of intergroup trial E1694/S9512/C509801. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2370–2380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Creagan ET, Dalton RJ, Ahmann DL et al. Randomized, surgical adjuvant clinical trial of recombinant interferon alfa-2a in selected patients with malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:2776–2783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Verma S, Quirt I, McCready D et al. Systematic review of systemic adjuvant therapy for patients at high risk for recurrent melanoma. Cancer 2006;106:1431–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohr P, Weichenthal M, Hauschild A. Adjuvant therapy in melanoma. Onkologie 2003;26:227–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tilgen W. Malignant melanoma: current therapeutic concepts. Onkologie 1995;18:534–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sondak VK, Sosman J, Unger JM et al. Significant impact of HLA class I allele expression on outcome in melanoma patients treated with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate vaccine. Final analysis of SWOG-9035 [abstract 7501]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2004;14S:22.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koops HS, Vaglini M, Suciu S et al. Prophylactic isolated limb perfusion for localized, high-risk limb melanoma: results of a multicenter reandomized phase HI trial. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Malignant Melanoma Cooperative Group Protocol 18832, the World Health Organization Melanoma Program Trial 15 and the North American Perfusion Group Southwest Oncology Group-8593. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2906–2912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eton O, Legha SS, Bedikian AY et al. Sequential biochemotherapy versus chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma: results from a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2045–2052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gogas HJ, Kirkwood JM, Sondak VK. Chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma: time for a change? Cancer 2007;109:455–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rass K, Tadler D, Tilgen W. Therapy of malignant melanoma. First-, second-and pathogenesis-oriented third-line therapies. Hautarzt 2006;57:773–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sasse AD, Sasse EC, Clark LG et al. Chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy for metastatic malignant melanoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 (1):CD005413.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eggermont AMM, Kirkwood JM. Re-evaluating the role of dacarbazine in metastastic melanoma: what have we learned in 30 years? Eur J Cancer 2004;40:1825–1836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bedikian AY, Millward M, Pehamberger H et al. Bcl-2 antisense (oblimersen sodium) plus dacarbazine in patients with advanced melanoma: The Oblimersen Melanoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:4738–4745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schadendorf D, Ugurel S, Schuler-Thurner B et al. Dacarbazine (DTIC) versus vaccination with autologous peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma: a randomized phase III trial of the DC study group of the DeCOG. Ann Oncol 2006;17:563–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Middleton MR, Grob JJ, Aaronson N et al. Randomized phase III study of temozolomide versus dacarbazine in the treatment of patients with advanced metastastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:158–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Danson S, Lorigan P. Improving outcomes in advanced malignant melanoma—Update on systemic therapy. Drugs 2005;65:733–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Avril MF, Aamdal S, Grob JJ et al. Fotemustine compared with dacarbazine in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:1118–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chapman PB, Einhorn LH, Meyers ML et al. Phase III multicenter randomized trial of the Dartmouth regimen versus dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:2745–2751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huncharek M, Caubet JF, McGarry R. Single-agent DTIC versus combination chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma: a meta-analysis of 3273 patients from 20 randomized trials. Melanoma Res 2001;11:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Legha SS, Ring S, Bedikian A et al. Treatment of metastatic melanoma with combined chemotherapy containing cisplatin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (CVD) and biotherapy using interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha. Ann Oncol 1996;7:827–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bajetta E, Del Vecchio M, Nova P et al. Multicenter phase III randomized trial of polychemotherapy (CVD regimen) versus the same chemotherapy (CT) plus subcutaneous interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha2b in metastatic melanoma. Ann Oncol 2006;17:571–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kaufinann R, Spicth K, Leiter U et al. Temozolomide in combination with Interferon-alfa versus Temozolomidc alone in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma: A randomized, Phase III, multicenter study from the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:9001–9007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reinhold U, Hartl C, Hering R et al. Fatal rhabdomyolysis and multiple organ failure associated with adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa in malignant melanoma. Lancet 1997;349:540–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Kefford RF. Cutaneous melanoma. Lancet 2005;365:687–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Serrone L, Hersey P. The chemoresistance of human malignant melanoma: an update. Melanoma Res 1999;9:51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ugurel S, Schadendorf D, Pföhler C et al. In vitro drug sensitivity predicts response and survival after individualized sensitivity-directed chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma: a multicenter phase II trial of the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:5454–5463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Quinn JA, Desjardins A, Weingart J et al. Phase I trial of temozolomide plus O6-benzylguanine for patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:7178–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ranson M, Middleton MR, Bridgewater J et al. Lomeguatrib, a potent inhibitor of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase: phase I safety, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic trial and evaluation in combination with temozolomide in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:1577–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ranson M, Hersey P, Thompson D et al. Randomized trial of the combination of lomeguatrib and temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone in chemotherapy naive patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:2540–2545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tentori L, Leonetti C, Scarsella M et al. Brain distribution and efficacy as chemosensitizer of an oral formulation of PARP-1 inhibitor GPI 15427 in experimental models of CNS tumors. Int J Oncol 2005;26:415–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Barranco S, Romsdahl M, Humphrey R. The radiation response of human malignant melanoma cells grown in vitro. Cancer Res 1971;31:830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Isokangas OP, Muhonen T, Kajanti M et al. Radiation therapy of intracranial malignant melanoma. Radiother Oncol 1996;38:139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Buchsbaum JC, Shu JH, Lee SY et al. Survival by radiation therapy oncology group recursive partitioning analysis class and treatment modality in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. Cancer 2002;94:2265–2272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mathieu D, Kondziolka D, Cooper PB et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery in the management of malignant melanoma brain metastases. Neurosurgery 2007;60:471–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kirova YM, Chen J, Rabarijaona LI et al. Radiotherapy as palliative treatment for metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res 1999;9:611–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ballo MT, Strom EA, Zagars GK et al. Adjuvant irradiation for axillary metastases from malignant melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;52:964–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Belardelli F, Ferrantini M, Parmiani G et al. International Meeting on Cancer Vaccines: How can we enhance efficacy of therapeutic vaccines? Cancer Res 2004;64:6827–6830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schuler-Thurner B, Schuler G. Vaccination therapy of melanoma. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2005;3:630–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sosman JA, Weeraratna AT, Sondak VK. When will melanoma vaccines be proven effective? J Clin Oncol 2004;22:387–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sondak VK, Liu PY, Tuthill RJ et al. Adjuvant immunotherapy of resected, intermediate-thickness node-negative melanoma with an allogeneic tumor vaccine. Overall results of a randomized trial of the Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2058–2066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rosenberg SA, Dudley ME. Cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma after the transfer of autologous antitumor lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101(Suppl. 2):14639–14645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wolchok JD, Saenger YM. Current topics in melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol 2007;19:116–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Phan GQ, Yang J, Sherry RM et al. Cancer regression and autoimmunity induced by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:8372–8377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Attia P, Phan GQ, Maker AV et al. Autoimmunity correlates with tumor regression in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with Anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:6043–6053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schneeder A, Wagner C, Zemann A et al. CpG motifs are efficient adjuvants for DNA vaccines. J Invest Dermatol 2004;123:371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pashenkov M, Goëss G, Wagner C et al. Phase II trial of a toll-like receptor 9-activating oligonucleotide in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:5716–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Becker JC, Kirkwood JM, Agarwala SS et al. Molecular targeted therapy for melanoma. Current reality and future options. Cancer 2006;107:2317–2327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sosman JA, Puzaniv I. Molecular targets in melanoma from angiogenesis to apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12(Suppl. 7):2376–2383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Davies H, Bignell GR, Cox C et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature 2002;417:949–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wilhelm SM, Carter C, Tang L et al. BAY 43-9006 exhibits broad spectrum oral antitumour activity and targets the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumour progression and angiogenesis. Cancer Res 2004;6:7099–7109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Strumberg D, Richly H, Hilger RA et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the novel Raf kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor BAY 43-9006 in patients. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:965–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Margolin K, Longmate J, Baratta T et al. CCI-779 in metastatic melanoma: a phase II trial of the California Cancer Consortium. Cancer 2005;104:1045–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thallinger C, Poeppl W, Pratscher B et al. CCI-779 plus cisplatin is highly effective against human melanoma in a SCID mouse xenotranplantation model. Pharmacology 2007;79:207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wyman K, Atkins MB, Prieto V et al. Multicenter phase II trial of high-dose imatinib mesylate in metastatic melanoma. Cancer 2006;1006:2005–2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Curtin JA, Busam K, Pinkel D et al. Somatic activation of KIT in distinct subtypes of melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:4340–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hwu WJ, Krown SE, Menell JH et al. Phase II study of temozolomide plus thalidomide for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:3351–3356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Danson S, Lorigan P, Arance A et al. Randomized phase II study of temozolomide given every 8 hours or daily with either interferon alfa-2b or thalidomide in metastatic malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2551–2557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Krown SE, Niedzwiecki D, Hwu WJ et al. Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic melanoma in the brain: high rate of thromboembolic events (CALGB 500102). Cancer 2006;107:1883–1890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher Novotny W et al. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2335–2342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chow LQ, Eckhardt SG. Sunitinib: from rational design to clinical efficacy. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:884–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peterson AC, Swiger S, Stadler WM et al. Phase II study of thr Flk-1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5416 in advanced melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:4048–4054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tucker GC. Alpha v integrin inhibitors and cancer therapy. Curr Opinion Investig Drugs 2003;4:722–731.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hersey P, Sosman J, O’Day S et al. A phase II, randomized, open label study evaluating the antitumor activity of MEDI-522, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human alpha v beta 3 (avb3) integrin +/-dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2005: Abstract 7570.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dormond O, Foletti A, Paroz C et al. NSAIDs inhibit alpha V beta 3 integrin-mediated and Cdc42/Rac-dependent endothelial-cell spreading, migration and angiogenesis. Nat Med 2001;7:1041–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lejeune FL, Monnier Y, Rüegg C. Complete and long-lasting regression of disseminated multiple skin melanoma metastases under treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Melanoma Res 2006;16:263–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Helmbach H, Kern MA, Rossmann E et al. Drug resistance towards etoposide and cisplatin in human melanoma cells is associated with drug-dependent apoptosis deficiency. J Invest Dermatol 2002;118:923–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jansen B, Schlagbauer-Wadl H, Brown BD et al. Bcl-2 antisense therapy chemosensitizes human melanoma in SCID mice. Nat Med 1998;4:232–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hu Y, Cherton-Horvat G, Dragowska V et al. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting XIAP induce apoptosis and enhance chemotherapeutic activity against human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9:2826–2836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Amiri KI, Horton LW, LaFleur BJ et al. Augmenting chemosensitivity of malignant melanoma tumours via proteasome inhibition: implication for bortezomib (VELCADE, PS-341) as a therapeutic agent for malignant melanoma. Cancer Res 2004;64:4912–4918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Baldwin AS. Control of oncogenesis and cancer therapy resistance by the transcription factor NF-κB. J Clin Invest 2001;107:241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Katalinic A, Kunze U, Schafer T. Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany: incidence, clinical subtypes, tumour stages and localization (epidemiology of skin cancer). Br J Dermatol 2003;149:1200–1206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Boukamp P. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: what drives tumor development and progression? Carcinogenesis 2005;26:1657–1667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rass K. UV damage and DNA repair in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. In: Reichrath J, ed. Molecular Mechanisms of Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinomas. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience 2006:18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ceilly RI, Del Rosso JQ. Current modalities and new advances in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol 2006;45:489–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rodriguez-Vigil T, Vazquez-Lopez F, Perez-Oliva N. Recurrence rates of primary basal cell carcinoma in facial risk areas treated with curettage and electrodesiccation. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;56:91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thissen MR, Neumann MH, Schouten LJ. A systematic review of treatment modalities for primary basal cell carcinomas. Arch Dermatol 1999;135:1177–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Thissen MR, Nieman FH, Ideler AH et al. Cosmetic results of cryosurgery versus surgical excision for primary uncomplicated basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Dermatol Surg 2000;26:759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Panizzon RG. Dermatologic radiotherapy. Hautarzt 58:701–712.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Silverman MK, Kopf AW, Gladstein AH et al. Recurrence rates of treated basal cell carcinomas. Part 4: X-ray therapy. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1992;18:549–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Noodt BB, Berk K, Stokke T et al. Apoptosis and necrosis induced with light and 5-aminolaevulinic acid-derived protoporphyrin IX. Br J Cancer 1996;74:22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Braathen LR, Szeimies RM, Basset-Seguin N et al. Guidelines on the use of photodynamic therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer: an international consensus. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;56:125–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rhodes LE, de Rie M, Enstrom Y et al. Photodynamic therapy using topical methyl aminolevulinate vs surgery for nodular basal cell carcinoma: results of a multicenter randomized prospective trial. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Berman B, Sullivan T, De Araujo T et al. Expression of Fas-receptor on basal cell carcinomas after treatment with imiquimod 5% cream or vehicle. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149(Suppl. 66):59–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stockfleth E, Trefzer U, Garcia-Bartels C et al. The use of Toll-like receptor-7 agonist in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an overview. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149(Suppl. 66):53–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Locke J, Karimpour S, Young G et al. Radiotherapy for epithelial skin cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;51:748–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    McCord MW, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT et al. Skin cancer of the head and neck with clinical perineural invasion. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;47:89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schmook T, Stockfleth E. Current treatment patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer across Europe. J Dermatolog Treat 2003; 14(Suppl. 3):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Freeman M, Vinciullo C, Francis D et al. A comparison of photodynamic therapy using topical methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) with single cycle cryotherapy in patients with actinic keratosis: a prospective, randomized study. J Dermatolog Treat 2003;14:99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Szeimies RM, Gerritsen MJ, Gupta G et al. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results from a phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial with histology. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;51:547–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tanghetti E, Werschler P. Comparison of 5% 5-fluorouracil cream and 5% imiquimod cream in the management of actinic keratoses on the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol 2007;6:144–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wolf JE, Taylor JR, Tschen E et al. Topical 3.0% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Int J Dermatol 2001;41:371–372.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mendenhall NP, Million RR, Cassisi NJ. Parotid area lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the skin. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1985;11:707–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Guthrie TH Jr, Porubsky ES et al. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: results in 28 patients including 13 patients receiving multimodality therapy. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:342–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Khansur T, Kennedy A. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for advanced locoregional and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer 1991;67:2020–2032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Saarland University Hospital Dermatology ClinicHomburg/SaarGermany
  2. 2.Clinic for Dermatology, Venerology and AllergologyThe Saarland University HospitalHomburg/SaarGermany

Personalised recommendations